Abstract

Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  4. P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2003

2002

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

2001

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juices,” Fed. Regist. 66, 6137–6202 (2001).

2000

H. E. Uljas, S. C. Ingham, “Survey of apple growing, harvesting, and cider manufacturing practices in Wisconsin: implications for safety,” J. Food Safety 20, 85–100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. E. Brackett, “Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15, 305–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Lang, S. C. Ingham, B. H. Ingham, “Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis crtical control point programs: choices for indicator bacteria and testing,” J. Food Protect. 62, 887–893 (1999).

1998

Y. Tao, Z. Wen, “Adaptive spherical transforms for high-speed fruit defect detection,” Trans. ASAE 42, 241–246 (1998).

1997

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Outbreaks of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated drinking unpasteurized apple cider—Connecticut and New York, October 1996,” Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 46, 4–8 (1997).

J. S. Wallace, T. Cheasty, K. Jones, “Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 from wild birds,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 82, 399–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

1996

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157: H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice—October 1996,” Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 45, 975–982 (1996).

1993

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annous, B. A.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

Arbus, G. S.

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, G. L.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157: H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barret, T. J.

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Besser, R. E.

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brackett, R. E.

R. E. Brackett, “Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15, 305–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bresee, J. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, R. G.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, R. L.

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

Cairns, K. L.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, D.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Chao, K.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

Cheasty, T.

J. S. Wallace, T. Cheasty, K. Jones, “Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 from wild birds,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 82, 399–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. R.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

Chen, Y.-R.

Cody, S. H.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, M. P.

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Farrar, J. A.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fyfe, M.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glynn, M. K.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, P. M.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hankinson, T. R.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

Hoffman, R.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157: H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ingham, B. H.

M. M. Lang, S. C. Ingham, B. H. Ingham, “Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis crtical control point programs: choices for indicator bacteria and testing,” J. Food Protect. 62, 887–893 (1999).

Ingham, S. C.

H. E. Uljas, S. C. Ingham, “Survey of apple growing, harvesting, and cider manufacturing practices in Wisconsin: implications for safety,” J. Food Safety 20, 85–100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Lang, S. C. Ingham, B. H. Ingham, “Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis crtical control point programs: choices for indicator bacteria and testing,” J. Food Protect. 62, 887–893 (1999).

Jones, K.

J. S. Wallace, T. Cheasty, K. Jones, “Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 from wild birds,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 82, 399–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y.-R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

King, A. S.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, J.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lang, M. M.

M. M. Lang, S. C. Ingham, B. H. Ingham, “Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis crtical control point programs: choices for indicator bacteria and testing,” J. Food Protect. 62, 887–893 (1999).

Lefcourt, A. M.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y.-R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

Lett, S. M.

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. H.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magee, M.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

Mattrazzo, A. M.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

McCaig, L. F.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mead, P. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. G.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157: H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, N.

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rance, C. P.

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riordan, D. C. R.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

Sapers, G. M.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

Shapiro, C.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, L.

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[CrossRef]

Steele, B. T.

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swaminathan, B.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

Y. Tao, Z. Wen, “Adaptive spherical transforms for high-speed fruit defect detection,” Trans. ASAE 42, 241–246 (1998).

Tauxe, R. V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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H. E. Uljas, S. C. Ingham, “Survey of apple growing, harvesting, and cider manufacturing practices in Wisconsin: implications for safety,” J. Food Safety 20, 85–100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Wallace, T. Cheasty, K. Jones, “Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 from wild birds,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 82, 399–404 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

Wells, J. G.

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Z.

Y. Tao, Z. Wen, “Adaptive spherical transforms for high-speed fruit defect detection,” Trans. ASAE 42, 241–246 (1998).

Ann. Internal Med.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Internal Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Emerg. Infect. Diseases

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Diseases 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Fed. Regist.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juices,” Fed. Regist. 66, 6137–6202 (2001).

Food Technol.

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

J. Am. Med. Assoc.

R. E. Besser, S. M. Lett, J. T. Weber, M. P. Doyle, T. J. Barret, J. G. Wells, P. M. Griffin, “An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh pressed apple cider,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269, 2217–2220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Microbiol.

J. S. Wallace, T. Cheasty, K. Jones, “Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 from wild birds,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 82, 399–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Food Protect.

D. C. R. Riordan, G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A. Annous, “A study of U. S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli 0157:H7,” J. Food Protect. 64, 1320–1327 (2001).

M. M. Lang, S. C. Ingham, B. H. Ingham, “Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis crtical control point programs: choices for indicator bacteria and testing,” J. Food Protect. 62, 887–893 (1999).

J. Food Safety

H. E. Uljas, S. C. Ingham, “Survey of apple growing, harvesting, and cider manufacturing practices in Wisconsin: implications for safety,” J. Food Safety 20, 85–100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Pediatr.

B. T. Steele, N. Murphy, G. S. Arbus, C. P. Rance, “An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the ingestion of fresh apple juice,” J. Pediatr. 101, 963–965 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. E. Brackett, “Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15, 305–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trans. ASAE

Y. Tao, Z. Wen, “Adaptive spherical transforms for high-speed fruit defect detection,” Trans. ASAE 42, 241–246 (1998).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2017–2026 (2002).

Other

Food Safety Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Livestock post-mortem inspection activities-enforcing the zero tolerances for fecal materials, ingesta, and milk,” Directive 6420.1, http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oppde/rdad/fsisdirectives/fsisdir6420_1.htm (1998), pp. 1–9.

A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations where duplicates of serial dilutions of feces were applied to an apple relative to a single black dot drawn near the center of the apple’s surface. For deer feces, a 1:10 dilution was substituted for the 1:2 dilution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) Red-band and (d)–(f) red-blue ratio images of an example apple 1 day (a), (d) and 7 days (b), (e) after dilutions of BA dairy feces have been applied and after washing and brushing of the apple (c), (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Red-band and (d)–(f) red-blue ratio images of an example apple 1 day (a), (d) and 7 days (b), (e) after dilutions of UM dairy feces have been applied and after washing and brushing of the apple (c), (f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(c) Red-band and (d)–(f) red-blue ratio images of an example apple 1 day (a), (d) and 7 days (b), (e) after dilutions of deer feces have been applied and after washing and brushing of the apple (c), (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Red-band and (d)–(f) red-blue ratio images of an example apple 1 day (a), (d) and 7 days (b), (e) after dilutions of pasture feces have been applied and after washing and brushing of the apple (c), (f). Note how washing resulted in smearing of the contamination across the surface in (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of detection of fecal contamination by use of (a)–(c) red-band and (d)–(f) red-blue ratio images. Original images (a) and (d) were subjected to edge detection. Edge images (b) and (d) were filtered primarily by threshold filter to produce the black pixels shown in (c) and (f) overlaid upon the original images. Detection of the edge of the apple in ratio image (e) was due to the relatively high ratio value of the background that resulted from differences in the background values in the red and blue images used to produce the ratio image.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Comparison of Dry-Matter Content of Feces by Source

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Table 2 Number of Black Pixels in Red-Band Images detected with Machine Vision, According to Source of Feces, Dilution, and Time after Application and Treatmenta

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Table 3 Percentage of Feces-Application Spots Detected by Use of Combined Information from Red-Band and Red-Blue Ratio Images According to Source of Feces, Dilution, and Time after Application, and Treatmenta

Metrics