Abstract

A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to capture multispectral fluorescence emission images simultaneously from a relatively large target object is described. With an expanded, 355-nm Nd:YAG laser as the excitation source, the system captures fluorescence emission images in the blue, green, red, and far-red regions of the spectrum centered at 450, 550, 678, and 730 nm, respectively, from a 30-cm-diameter target area in ambient light. Images of apples and of pork meat artificially contaminated with diluted animal feces have demonstrated the versatility of fluorescence imaging techniques for potential applications in food safety inspection. Regions of contamination, including sites that were not readily visible to the human eye, could easily be identified from the images.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  24. M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).
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2003 (1)

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination on apples using multispectral laser induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, XXX–XXX (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

2001 (4)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juices,” Fed. Reg. 66, 6137–6202 (2001).

M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, P. M. Mehl, “Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging system for food quality and safety,” Trans. ASAE 44, 721–729 (2001).

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, H. Early, “A chicken carcass inspection system using visible/near-infrared reflectance: in plant trials,” J. Food Process. Eng. 23, 89–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

1999 (3)

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Wold, F. Lundby, B. Egelandsdal, “Quantification of connective tissue (hydroxyproline) in ground beef by autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Food Sci. 64, 377–383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Park, Y. R. Chen, M. Nguyen, “Multi-spectral image analysis using neural network algorithm for inspection of poultry carcasses,” J. Agr. Eng. Res. 69, 351–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Lang, F. Stober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents,” Radiant Environ. Biophys. 30, 333–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1973 (1)

Allen, J. W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aprahamian, M.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazzani, M.

G. Cecchi, M. Bazzani, V. Raimond, L. Pantani, “Fluorescence LIDAR in vegetation remote sensing: system features and multiplatform operation,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS’94 (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), Vol. 1, pp. 637–639.

Bresee, J. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, R. G.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cairns, K. L.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cecchi, G.

G. Cecchi, M. Bazzani, V. Raimond, L. Pantani, “Fluorescence LIDAR in vegetation remote sensing: system features and multiplatform operation,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS’94 (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), Vol. 1, pp. 637–639.

Chan, D.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

Chao, K.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

Chappelle, E. W.

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, J. E. McMurtrey, W. W. Newcomb, “Laser induced fluorescence of green plants 1. A technique for the remote detection of plant stress and species differentiation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 134–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. R.

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination on apples using multispectral laser induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, XXX–XXX (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, P. M. Mehl, “Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging system for food quality and safety,” Trans. ASAE 44, 721–729 (2001).

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, H. Early, “A chicken carcass inspection system using visible/near-infrared reflectance: in plant trials,” J. Food Process. Eng. 23, 89–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, Y. R. Chen, M. Nguyen, “Multi-spectral image analysis using neural network algorithm for inspection of poultry carcasses,” J. Agr. Eng. Res. 69, 351–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

Cheng, L. Q.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chew, T. L.

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chisholm, R. L.

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cody, S. H.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daughtry, C. S. T.

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Early, H.

Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, H. Early, “A chicken carcass inspection system using visible/near-infrared reflectance: in plant trials,” J. Food Process. Eng. 23, 89–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egelandsdal, B.

J. P. Wold, F. Lundby, B. Egelandsdal, “Quantification of connective tissue (hydroxyproline) in ground beef by autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Food Sci. 64, 377–383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evrard, S.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrar, J. A.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fyfe, M.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, P. L.

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glynn, M. K.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, P. M.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajri, A.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heisel, F.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewett, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hruschka, W. R.

Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, H. Early, “A chicken carcass inspection system using visible/near-infrared reflectance: in plant trials,” J. Food Process. Eng. 23, 89–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

Ibbotson, S.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. H.

Kim, I.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

Kim, M. S.

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination on apples using multispectral laser induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, XXX–XXX (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, P. M. Mehl, “Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging system for food quality and safety,” Trans. ASAE 44, 721–729 (2001).

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, A. S.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, J.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, M.

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lang, F. Stober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents,” Radiant Environ. Biophys. 30, 333–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, E.

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefcourt, A. M.

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination on apples using multispectral laser induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, XXX–XXX (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

Lewis, J. H.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichtenthaler, H. K.

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lang, F. Stober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents,” Radiant Environ. Biophys. 30, 333–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lundby, F.

J. P. Wold, F. Lundby, B. Egelandsdal, “Quantification of connective tissue (hydroxyproline) in ground beef by autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Food Sci. 64, 377–383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marescaux, J.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumura, F.

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaig, L. F.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMurtrey, J. E.

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, J. E. McMurtrey, W. W. Newcomb, “Laser induced fluorescence of green plants 1. A technique for the remote detection of plant stress and species differentiation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 134–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mead, P. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehl, P. M.

M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, P. M. Mehl, “Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging system for food quality and safety,” Trans. ASAE 44, 721–729 (2001).

Mieh, J. A.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miehe, J. A.

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, H.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulchi, C. L.

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, V.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newcomb, W. W.

Nguyen, M.

B. Park, Y. R. Chen, M. Nguyen, “Multi-spectral image analysis using neural network algorithm for inspection of poultry carcasses,” J. Agr. Eng. Res. 69, 351–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantani, L.

G. Cecchi, M. Bazzani, V. Raimond, L. Pantani, “Fluorescence LIDAR in vegetation remote sensing: system features and multiplatform operation,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS’94 (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), Vol. 1, pp. 637–639.

Park, B.

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

B. Park, Y. R. Chen, M. Nguyen, “Multi-spectral image analysis using neural network algorithm for inspection of poultry carcasses,” J. Agr. Eng. Res. 69, 351–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, V.

G. Cecchi, M. Bazzani, V. Raimond, L. Pantani, “Fluorescence LIDAR in vegetation remote sensing: system features and multiplatform operation,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS’94 (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), Vol. 1, pp. 637–639.

Shapiro, C.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsker, L.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowinska, M.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stober, F.

M. Lang, F. Stober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents,” Radiant Environ. Biophys. 30, 333–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swaminathan, B.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassetti, V.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauxe, R. V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vugia, D. J.

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheaton, F. W.

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

Wold, J. P.

J. P. Wold, F. Lundby, B. Egelandsdal, “Quantification of connective tissue (hydroxyproline) in ground beef by autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Food Sci. 64, 377–383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, W. A.

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, F. M.

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

S. H. Cody, M. K. Glynn, J. A. Farrar, K. L. Cairns, P. M. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. S. King, J. H. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. G. Bryant, D. J. Vugia, “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,” Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Eng. Agr. (1)

K. Chao, B. Park, Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, F. W. Wheaton, “Design of a dual-camera system for poultry carcasses inspection,” Appl. Eng. Agr. 16, 581–587 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (4)

H. H. Kim, “New algae mapping technique by the use of an airborne laser fluoresensor,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1454–1459 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, Y. R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 57–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, J. E. McMurtrey, W. W. Newcomb, “Laser induced fluorescence of green plants 1. A technique for the remote detection of plant stress and species differentiation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 134–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination on apples using multispectral laser induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, XXX–XXX (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1)

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fed. Reg. (1)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juices,” Fed. Reg. 66, 6137–6202 (2001).

J. Agr. Eng. Res. (1)

B. Park, Y. R. Chen, M. Nguyen, “Multi-spectral image analysis using neural network algorithm for inspection of poultry carcasses,” J. Agr. Eng. Res. 69, 351–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

T. L. Chew, W. A. Wolf, P. L. Gallagher, F. Matsumura, R. L. Chisholm, “A fluorescent resonant energy transfer based biosensor revels transient and regional myosin light chain kinase activation in lamella and cleavage furrows,” J. Cell Biol. 156, 543–553 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Food Process. Eng. (1)

Y. R. Chen, W. R. Hruschka, H. Early, “A chicken carcass inspection system using visible/near-infrared reflectance: in plant trials,” J. Food Process. Eng. 23, 89–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Food Sci. (1)

J. P. Wold, F. Lundby, B. Egelandsdal, “Quantification of connective tissue (hydroxyproline) in ground beef by autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Food Sci. 64, 377–383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Plant Physiol. (1)

H. K. Lichtenthaler, M. Lang, M. Sowinska, F. Heisel, J. A. Miehe, “Detection of vegetation stress via a new high resolution fluorescence imaging system,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 599–612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiant Environ. Biophys. (1)

M. Lang, F. Stober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents,” Radiant Environ. Biophys. 30, 333–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Trans. ASAE (3)

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2039–2047 (2002).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, K. Chao, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. I. Application of visible-near infrared reflectance imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2037 (2002).

M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, P. M. Mehl, “Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging system for food quality and safety,” Trans. ASAE 44, 721–729 (2001).

Other (5)

Food Safety Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Livestock post-mortem inspection activities-enforcing the zero tolerances for fecal materials, ingesta, and milk,” Directive 6420.1, http://www/fsis.usda.gov/oppde/rdad/fsisdirectives/fsisdir6420_1.htm (1998), pp. 1–9.

M. Klein, “eMerge interactive, Excel enters into production agreement for new breakthrough food-safety technology,” http://www.excel-meats.com/about/pressre/ease.htm (2002).

G. Cecchi, M. Bazzani, V. Raimond, L. Pantani, “Fluorescence LIDAR in vegetation remote sensing: system features and multiplatform operation,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS’94 (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), Vol. 1, pp. 637–639.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Prod. (to be published).

M. S. Kim, E. W. Chappelle, E. Leblanc, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, J. E. McMurtrey, “Assessment of combine effects of mild water stress, elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2 on crops using fluorescence imaging,” in Remote Sensing For Agriculture, Ecosystems, and HydrologyE. T. Engman, ed., Proc. SPIE3499, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the MLIFIS. The image at the lower right shows the laser head and detector modules.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative fluorescence images of feces-treated apples at F450, F550, F680, and F730 (the parameter numbers are wavelengths).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relative fluorescence intensities of the feces treatment spots and apple surfaces at F450, F550, F680, and F730 (n = 11). (b) Relative fluorescence intensities of the three dilute feces samples placed on a nonfluorescent plate at F450, F550, F680, and F730 (n = 4). Within each fluorescence band, difference letters indicate significant differences by pairwise contrasts (∀ = 0.01 for (a) and α = 0.05 for (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fluorescence images of an apple calyx region treated with 1:20 dilution feces. F680 and F730 images clearly show the feces-treated spots in the vicinity of the calyx. (b) Reflectance images of the same apple. The treated spots were not visible in the reflectance images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative fluorescence images of pork-meat samples treated with 1:20 dilutions of swine feces at F450, F550, F680, and F730.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plot of the F680 image shown in Fig. 5. Part of the reddish pork-meat sample was contaminated with dilute (1:20) swine feces. Gray-level scales depict the relative fluorescence intensities.

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