Abstract

We present measurements of the local diattenuation and retardance of thin-film specimens by using techniques that combine near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and a novel polarization-modulation (PM) polarimetry utilizing Fourier analysis of the detected intensity signal. Generally, quantitative near-field polarimetry is hampered by the optical anisotropy of NSOM probes. For example, widely used aluminum-coated pulled-fiber aperture probes typically exhibit a diattenuation near 10%. Our analysis of aperture diattenuation demonstrates that the usual techniques for nulling a PM polarimeter result in a nonzero residual probe retardance in the presence of a diattenuating tip. However, we show that both diattenuation and retardance of the sample can be determined if the corresponding tip properties are explicitly measured and accounted for in the data. In addition, in thin films (<100 nm thick), where the sample retardance and diattenuation are often small, we show how to determine these polarimetric quantities without requiring alignment of the fast and diattenuating axes, which is a more general case than has been previously discussed. We demonstrate our techniques by using two types of polymer-film specimens: ultrahigh molecular weight block copolymers (recently noted for their photonic activity) and isotactic polystyrene spherulites. Finally, we discuss how changes in the tip diattenuation during data collection can limit the accuracy of near-field polarimetry and what steps can be taken to improve these techniques.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

M. J. Fasolka, L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, T. Swager, E. L. Thomas, “Measuring local optical properties: near-field polarimetry of photonic block copolymer morphology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. Ramoino, M. Labardi, N. Maghelli, L. Pardi, M. Allegrini, S. Patane, “Polarization-modulation near-field optical microscope for quantitative local dichroism mapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2051–2056 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, “Near-field scanning optical microscope studies of the anisotropic stress variations in patterned SiN membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, G. W. Bryant, “Local imaging of photonic structures: image contrast from impedance mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 27, 415–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Teetsov, D. A. Vanden Bout, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy studies of nanoscale order in thermally annealed films of poly(9,9-diakylfluorene),” Langmuir 18, 897–903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. A. Higgins, X. M. Liao, J. E. Hall, E. W. Mei, “Simultaneous near-field optical birefringence and fluorescence contrast applied to the study of dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5874–5882 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Teetsov, D. A. Vanden Bout, “Imaging molecular and nanoscale order in conjugated polymer thin films with near-field scanning optical microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3605–3606 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Teetsov, D. A. Vanden Bout, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) study of alkyl-substituted polyfluorene films: the affect of alkyl substituent length on nanoscale polymer ordering and cluster formation,” Macromol. Symp. 167, 153–166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “The correlation between polarization modulated near-field optical images and the anisotropy of the probe,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 148–153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Tan, A. R. Inigo, J. H. Hsu, W. Fann, P. K. Wei, “Mesoscale structures in luminescent conjugated polymer thin films studied by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1643–1654 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Wei, Y. F. Lin, W. Fann, Y. Z. Lee, S. A. Chen, “Polarization anisotropy in mesoscale domains of poly(phenylene vinylene) thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 045417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, G. W. Bryant, M. J. Fasolka, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, H. Shen, P. T. Ho, “Newton’s rings in near-field optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 583–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fasolka, A. M. Mayes, “Block copolymer thin films: physics and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 323–355 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jones, S. K. Kumar, D. L. Ho, R. M. Briber, T. P. Russell, “Chain conformation in ultrathin polymer films using small-angle neutron scattering,” Macromolecules 34, 559–567 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mellbring, S. K. Oiseth, A. Krozer, J. Lausmaa, T. Hjertberg, “Spin coating and characterization of thin high-density polyethylene films,” Macromolecules 34, 7496–7503 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, S. Tanaka, M. Esashi, “Spatial distribution and polarization dependence of the optical near-field in a silicon microfabricated probe,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 28–33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Reiter, J.-U. Sommer, “Polymer crystallization in quasi-two dimensions. I. Experimental results,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4376–4383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Meredith, A. P. Smith, A. Karim, E. J. Amis, “Combinatorial materials science for polymer thin-film dewetting,” Macromolecules 33, 9747–9756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Roder, L. Paelke, N. Held, S. Vinzelberg, H. S. Kitzerow, “Imaging of liquid crystals using a new scanning near-field optical microscope with microfabricated tips and shear force detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2759–2764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, R. Sharp, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, “Tunable block copolymer/homopolymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12, 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Mei, D. A. Higgins, “Nanometer-scale resolution and depth discrimination in near-field optical microscopy studies of electric-field-induced molecular reorientation dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7839–7847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Huser, L. Novotny, T. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, A. M. Urbas, M. G. Bawendi, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “Block copolymers as photonic bandgap materials,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1963–1969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2891–2928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richter, C. E. Jordan, R. R. Cavanagh, G. W. Bryant, A. S. Liu, S. J. Stranick, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, “Influence of secondary tip shape on illumination-mode near-field scanning optical microscopy images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1936–1946 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “One-dimensionally periodic dielectric reflectors from self-assembled block copolymer-homopolymer blends,” Macromolecules 32, 4748–4750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Bergossi, H. Wioland, S. Hudlet, R. Deturche, P. Royer, “Near-field magneto-optical circular dichroism using an apertureless probe,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 38, L655–L658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakai, M. Imai, K. Kaji, M. Tsuji, “Tip-splitting crystal growth observed in crystallization from thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate),” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 244–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Sawamura, H. Miyaji, K. Izumi, S. I. Sutton, Y. Miyamoto, “Growth rate of isotactic polystyrene crystals in thin films,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 3338–3344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, T. Wilson, “On the general properties of polarized light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 148, 300–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, E. Oesterschulze, “Cantilever probes with aperture tips for polarization-sensitive scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. A 66, S367–S370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Fumagalli, A. Rosenberger, G. Eggers, A. Munnemann, N. Held, G. Guntherodt, “Quantitative determination of the local Kerr rotation by scanning near-field magneto-optic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2803–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. B. McDaniel, S. C. McClain, J. W. P. Hsu, “Nanometer scale polarimetry studies using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 84–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, E. L. Shirley, L. S. Goldner, E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, R. J. Tonucci, “Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2131–2141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, H. Heinzelmann, “Influence of detection conditions on near-field optical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5873–5882 (1998).
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T. Lacoste, T. Huser, R. Prioli, H. Heinzelmann, “Contrast enhancement using polarization-modulation scanning near-field optical microscopy (PM-SNOM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 333–340 (1998).
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T. Huser, T. Lacoste, H. Heinzelmann, H. S. Kitzerow, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7876–7880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, N. Ronarch, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
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T. Lacoste, T. Huser, H. Heinzelmann, “Faraday-rotation imaging by near-field optical microscopy,” Z. Phys. B 104, 183–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. 1. A single dipolar light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 91–104 (1997).
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L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. 2. Interacting dipolar particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 105–113 (1997).
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B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
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G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Two-modulator generalized ellipsometry: experiment and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8184–8189 (1997).
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G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Two-modulator generalized ellipsometry: theory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8190–8198 (1997).
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W. Noell, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, P. Guthner, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. A. Higgins, P. J. Reid, P. F. Barbara, “Structure and exciton dynamics in J-aggregates studied by polarization-dependent near-field scanning optical microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 1174–1180 (1996).
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T. J. Silva, S. Schultz, “A scanning near-field optical microscope for the imaging of magnetic domains in reflection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 715–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Ade, R. ToledoCrow, M. VaezIravani, R. J. Spontak, “Observation of polymer birefringence in near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir 12, 231–234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins, D. A. VandenBout, J. Kerimo, P. F. Barbara, “Polarization-modulation near-field scanning optical microscopy of mesostructured materials,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794–13803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical reflection microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1577–1580 (1995).
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R. Toledocrow, J. K. Rogers, F. Seiferth, M. Vaeziravani, “Contrast mechanisms and imaging modes in near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 293–297 (1995).
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G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Image contrast of dielectric specimens in transmission mode near-field scanning optical microscopy—imaging properties and tip artifacts,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 179, 29–54 (1995).
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H. Heinzelmann, B. Hecht, L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, “Forbidden light scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 177, 115–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. J. Silva, S. Schultz, D. Weller, “Scanning near-field optical microscope for the imaging of magnetic domains in optically opaque materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 658–660 (1994).
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S. Y. Lu, R. A. Chipman, “Homogeneous and inhomogeneous Jones matrices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 766–773 (1994).
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E. L. Thomas, R. L. Lescanec, “Phase morphology in block-copolymer systems,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 348, 149–166 (1994).
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R. J. Albalak, E. L. Thomas, “Roll-casting of block-copolymers and of block copolymer-homopolymer blends,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 32, 341–350 (1994).
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1993

G. Reiter, “Mobility of polymers in films thinner than their unperturbed size,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 579–584 (1993).
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M. Vaeziravani, R. Toledocrow, “Pure linear-polarization imaging in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 138–140 (1993).
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1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magnetooptics and high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
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A. S. Vaughan, “The morphology of semi-crystalline polymers,” Sci. Prog. (London) 76, 1–65 (1992).

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
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E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics—microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
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1991

D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM),” Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc. 12, 243–311 (1991).

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier—optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

F. S. Bates, G. H. Fredrickson, “Block copolymer thermodynamics—theory and experiment,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 525–557 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)—development and biophysical applications,” Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

S. J. Johnson, P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “Simultaneous dichroism and birefringence measurements of dilute colloidal suspensions in transient shear flow,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 104, 440–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “The dynamics of dilute colloidal suspensions subject to time-dependent flow fields by conservative dichroism,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 100, 506–518 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy—image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

1950

C. J. Bouwkamp, “On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by small circular disks and holes,” Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401–422 (1950).

C. J. Bouwkamp, “On Bethe’s theory of diffraction by small holes,” Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321–332 (1950).

1944

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163–182 (1944).
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Abraham, M.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, P. Guthner, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
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Absil, P. P.

L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, G. W. Bryant, M. J. Fasolka, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, H. Shen, P. T. Ho, “Newton’s rings in near-field optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 583–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

H. Ade, R. ToledoCrow, M. VaezIravani, R. J. Spontak, “Observation of polymer birefringence in near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir 12, 231–234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Albalak, R. J.

R. J. Albalak, E. L. Thomas, “Roll-casting of block-copolymers and of block copolymer-homopolymer blends,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 32, 341–350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

L. Ramoino, M. Labardi, N. Maghelli, L. Pardi, M. Allegrini, S. Patane, “Polarization-modulation near-field optical microscope for quantitative local dichroism mapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2051–2056 (2002).
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Amis, E. J.

J. C. Meredith, A. P. Smith, A. Karim, E. J. Amis, “Combinatorial materials science for polymer thin-film dewetting,” Macromolecules 33, 9747–9756 (2000).
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Azzam, R. M. A.

Barbara, P. F.

D. A. Higgins, D. A. VandenBout, J. Kerimo, P. F. Barbara, “Polarization-modulation near-field scanning optical microscopy of mesostructured materials,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794–13803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins, P. J. Reid, P. F. Barbara, “Structure and exciton dynamics in J-aggregates studied by polarization-dependent near-field scanning optical microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 1174–1180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barenz, J.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, P. Guthner, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bates, F. S.

F. S. Bates, G. H. Fredrickson, “Block copolymer thermodynamics—theory and experiment,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 525–557 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

Bergossi, O.

O. Bergossi, H. Wioland, S. Hudlet, R. Deturche, P. Royer, “Near-field magneto-optical circular dichroism using an apertureless probe,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 38, L655–L658 (1999).
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Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics—microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magnetooptics and high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier—optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)—development and biophysical applications,” Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, H. Heinzelmann, “Influence of detection conditions on near-field optical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5873–5882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1970), p. 711.

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, “On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by small circular disks and holes,” Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401–422 (1950).

C. J. Bouwkamp, “On Bethe’s theory of diffraction by small holes,” Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321–332 (1950).

Briber, R. M.

R. L. Jones, S. K. Kumar, D. L. Ho, R. M. Briber, T. P. Russell, “Chain conformation in ultrathin polymer films using small-angle neutron scattering,” Macromolecules 34, 559–567 (2001).
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Bryant, G. W.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, G. W. Bryant, “Local imaging of photonic structures: image contrast from impedance mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 27, 415–417 (2002).
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L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, G. W. Bryant, M. J. Fasolka, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, H. Shen, P. T. Ho, “Newton’s rings in near-field optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 583–585 (2001).
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L. J. Richter, C. E. Jordan, R. R. Cavanagh, G. W. Bryant, A. S. Liu, S. J. Stranick, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, “Influence of secondary tip shape on illumination-mode near-field scanning optical microscopy images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1936–1946 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, E. L. Shirley, L. S. Goldner, E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, R. J. Tonucci, “Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2131–2141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S. K.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. L.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, G. W. Bryant, “Local imaging of photonic structures: image contrast from impedance mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 27, 415–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, “Near-field scanning optical microscope studies of the anisotropic stress variations in patterned SiN membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 646–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, R. R.

Chang, C. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magnetooptics and high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chappert, C.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, N. Ronarch, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. X.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. A.

P. K. Wei, Y. F. Lin, W. Fann, Y. Z. Lee, S. A. Chen, “Polarization anisotropy in mesoscale domains of poly(phenylene vinylene) thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 045417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, N. Ronarch, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

DeAro, J. A.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy—image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DeRege, P.

M. J. Fasolka, L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, T. Swager, E. L. Thomas, “Measuring local optical properties: near-field polarimetry of photonic block copolymer morphology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deturche, R.

O. Bergossi, H. Wioland, S. Hudlet, R. Deturche, P. Royer, “Near-field magneto-optical circular dichroism using an apertureless probe,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 38, L655–L658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. C.

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2891–2928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, R.

Edrington, A. C.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eggers, G.

P. Fumagalli, A. Rosenberger, G. Eggers, A. Munnemann, N. Held, G. Guntherodt, “Quantitative determination of the local Kerr rotation by scanning near-field magneto-optic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2803–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Esashi, M.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, S. Tanaka, M. Esashi, “Spatial distribution and polarization dependence of the optical near-field in a silicon microfabricated probe,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 28–33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Essaidi, N.

V. Kottler, N. Essaidi, N. Ronarch, C. Chappert, Y. Chen, “Dichroic imaging of magnetic domains with a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 398–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W.

P. K. Wei, Y. F. Lin, W. Fann, Y. Z. Lee, S. A. Chen, “Polarization anisotropy in mesoscale domains of poly(phenylene vinylene) thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 045417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Tan, A. R. Inigo, J. H. Hsu, W. Fann, P. K. Wei, “Mesoscale structures in luminescent conjugated polymer thin films studied by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1643–1654 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W. S.

P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “The correlation between polarization modulated near-field optical images and the anisotropy of the probe,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 148–153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fasolka, M. J.

M. J. Fasolka, L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, T. Swager, E. L. Thomas, “Measuring local optical properties: near-field polarimetry of photonic block copolymer morphology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Fasolka, A. M. Mayes, “Block copolymer thin films: physics and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 323–355 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, G. W. Bryant, M. J. Fasolka, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, H. Shen, P. T. Ho, “Newton’s rings in near-field optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 583–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fetters, L. J.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, R. Sharp, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, “Tunable block copolymer/homopolymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12, 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, R. Sharp, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, “Tunable block copolymer/homopolymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12, 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbas, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “One-dimensionally periodic dielectric reflectors from self-assembled block copolymer-homopolymer blends,” Macromolecules 32, 4748–4750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, A. M. Urbas, M. G. Bawendi, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, “Block copolymers as photonic bandgap materials,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1963–1969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magnetooptics and high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frattini, P. L.

S. J. Johnson, P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “Simultaneous dichroism and birefringence measurements of dilute colloidal suspensions in transient shear flow,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 104, 440–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “The dynamics of dilute colloidal suspensions subject to time-dependent flow fields by conservative dichroism,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 100, 506–518 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fredrickson, G. H.

F. S. Bates, G. H. Fredrickson, “Block copolymer thermodynamics—theory and experiment,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 525–557 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, G. G.

S. J. Johnson, P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “Simultaneous dichroism and birefringence measurements of dilute colloidal suspensions in transient shear flow,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 104, 440–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Frattini, G. G. Fuller, “The dynamics of dilute colloidal suspensions subject to time-dependent flow fields by conservative dichroism,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 100, 506–518 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fumagalli, P.

P. Fumagalli, A. Rosenberger, G. Eggers, A. Munnemann, N. Held, G. Guntherodt, “Quantitative determination of the local Kerr rotation by scanning near-field magneto-optic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2803–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, L. S.

M. J. Fasolka, L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, T. Swager, E. L. Thomas, “Measuring local optical properties: near-field polarimetry of photonic block copolymer morphology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Goldner, J. Hwang, G. W. Bryant, M. J. Fasolka, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, H. Shen, P. T. Ho, “Newton’s rings in near-field optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 583–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, E. L. Shirley, L. S. Goldner, E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, R. J. Tonucci, “Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2131–2141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guntherodt, G.

P. Fumagalli, A. Rosenberger, G. Eggers, A. Munnemann, N. Held, G. Guntherodt, “Quantitative determination of the local Kerr rotation by scanning near-field magneto-optic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2803–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guthner, P.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, P. Guthner, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magnetooptics and high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hadjichristidis, N.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, E. L. Thomas, “Polymer-based photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 421–425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
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B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, H. Heinzelmann, “Influence of detection conditions on near-field optical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5873–5882 (1998).
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T. Huser, T. Lacoste, H. Heinzelmann, H. S. Kitzerow, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7876–7880 (1998).
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T. Lacoste, T. Huser, R. Prioli, H. Heinzelmann, “Contrast enhancement using polarization-modulation scanning near-field optical microscopy (PM-SNOM),” Ultramicroscopy 71, 333–340 (1998).
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R. L. Jones, S. K. Kumar, D. L. Ho, R. M. Briber, T. P. Russell, “Chain conformation in ultrathin polymer films using small-angle neutron scattering,” Macromolecules 34, 559–567 (2001).
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T. Huser, T. Lacoste, H. Heinzelmann, H. S. Kitzerow, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7876–7880 (1998).
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T. Lacoste, T. Huser, H. Heinzelmann, “Faraday-rotation imaging by near-field optical microscopy,” Z. Phys. B 104, 183–184 (1997).
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Y. Sakai, M. Imai, K. Kaji, M. Tsuji, “Tip-splitting crystal growth observed in crystallization from thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate),” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 244–254 (1999).
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T. Roder, L. Paelke, N. Held, S. Vinzelberg, H. S. Kitzerow, “Imaging of liquid crystals using a new scanning near-field optical microscope with microfabricated tips and shear force detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2759–2764 (2000).
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E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier—optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
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T. Huser, L. Novotny, T. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
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D. A. Higgins, X. M. Liao, J. E. Hall, E. W. Mei, “Simultaneous near-field optical birefringence and fluorescence contrast applied to the study of dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5874–5882 (2001).
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Noell, W.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollricher, O. Marti, P. Guthner, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
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T. Huser, L. Novotny, T. Lacoste, R. Eckert, H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
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S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, E. Oesterschulze, “Cantilever probes with aperture tips for polarization-sensitive scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. A 66, S367–S370 (1998).
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O. Mellbring, S. K. Oiseth, A. Krozer, J. Lausmaa, T. Hjertberg, “Spin coating and characterization of thin high-density polyethylene films,” Macromolecules 34, 7496–7503 (2001).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Schematic of a PM polarimeter. Light from a 488 nm laser passes through a polarizer oriented along the x axis. PM light is prepared with a PEM with modulation axis oriented at -45° to x followed by a QWR with a fast axis at -90°. The circular analyzer, A1, is removable. b, Schematic of the apparatus used in this work. PM modulated light is coupled into the cleaved end of the NSOM probe fiber, which passes through a fiber polarization controller (“fiber paddles”) used to control the fiber retardance. The tip/sample region is shown in the inset. A timing pulse from the PEM is used via a phase-locked loop to control the data clock (400 kHz). An FFT is performed on the collected time series and the dc, 1ω and 2ω coefficients are extracted at each point in an image scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nulling the near field polarimeter. Shown in a and b are maps of B and B [Eqs. (18) and (19)] respectively, as a function of the probe retardance (-π rad to π rad) and fast-axis alignment (-π/2 rad to π/2 rad) for a typical tip with the following properties: D t = 0.0588, x = 0.9, y = 0.8, φ d t = 1.3 rad. Gray scale corresponds to a range of zero (darkest) to 1.04 in a and 0.87 in b. Shown in c is the phase of the 1ω component [Eq. (22)] when the QWR before the fiber in Fig. 1 is removed. A polarimeter “null” is achieved at a simultaneous minimum in a and b and when c is less than zero. In c the gray scale corresponds to the range -π/2 rad to π/2 rad with the black areas = -π/2 rad and the white areas = π/2 rad.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of (top) the resulting residual probe retardance and (bottom) fast axis alignment for the points in Fig. 2 where a good null is achieved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the difference between the measured value of D t and φ d t [determined by using Eqs. (16) and (17)] and the actual value used in the model described by Eqs. (14) and (15) for the points in Fig. 2 where a good null is achieved.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplitudes of the dc (here denoted A 0) 1ω and 2ω Fourier components of the intensity signal measured with A1 in and A1 out collected immediately after nulling the polarimeter. The dc components, plotted in the top panels, in all cases are the largest amplitude component. The 1ω signals are plotted in black, and the 2ω signals are plotted in gray in the bottom panels. Since the polarimeter has been nulled, the 1ω and 2ω components with A1 in place overlap very near zero.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histograms of the diattenuation and residual retardance of a near-field probe. Data in black (gray) are taken immediately before (after) the data in Figs. 7 9. This plot illuminates changes in the tip diattenuation and retardance during a scan.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raw polarimeter data of a single grain in a block copolymer specimen. Images were acquired simultaneously with A1 out (diattenuation). The micrographs are 4 μm × 4 μm in size: a, topography; b, transmission (dc component of the FFT, here denoted A 0); c, real part of the 1ω component of the FFT; d, real part of the 2ω component of the FFT; e, imaginary part of the 1ω component of the FFT; f, imaginary part of the 2ω component of the FFT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diattenuation of the sample in Fig. 7 using the tip data shown as black diamonds in Fig. 6: a, diattenuation; b, diattenuating axis alignment; c, diattenuation histogram; d, histogram of the diattenuating axis alignment angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diattenuation of the sample in Fig. 7 where the tip data shown as gray diamonds in Fig. 6 are used: a, diattenuation; b, diattenuating axis alignment; c, diattenuation histogram; d, histogram of the diattenuating axis alignment angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Raw polarimeter data of a single PS spherulite. Images were acquired simultaneously with A1 out (diattenuation). The micrographs are 4 μm × 4 μm in size: a, topography; b, transmission (dc component of the FFT, here denoted A 0); c, real part of the 1ω component of the FFT; d, real part of the 2ω component of the FFT; e, imaginary part of the 1ω component of the FFT; f, imaginary part of the 2ω component of the FFT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Raw polarimeter data of a single PS spherulite. Images are acquired simultaneously with A1 in (retardance). The micrographs are 4 μm × 4 μm in size: a, topography; b, transmission (dc component of the FFT, here denoted A 0); c, real part of the 1ω component of the FFT; d, real part of the 2ω component of the FFT; e, imaginary part of the 1ω component of the FFT; f, imaginary part of the 2ω component of the FFT.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diattenuation of the sample in Figs. 10 and 11 calculated with tip data taken immediately after the scans were completed: a, diattenuation; b, diattenuating axis alignment; c, diattenuation histogram; d, histogram of the diattenuating axis alignment angle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Retardance of the sample in Figs. 10 and 11 calculated with tip data taken immediately after the scans were completed: a, retardance; b, fast axis alignment; c, retardance histogram showing a clear amorphous peak; d, histogram of the fast axis alignment angle.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retardance of the sample in Figs. 10 and 11 where the amorphous material in the upper central part of the image is used for retardance background subtraction (see text): a, retardance; b, fast axis alignment; c, retardance histogram showing a clear amorphous peak; d, histogram of the fast axis alignment angle.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Jones Matrices

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of Nonlinear Least-Squares Fits of Data in Fig. 6 to Three-Parameter Gaussian Function Described in the Text

Equations (44)

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DJ=Tmax-TminTmax+Tmin,
Tmax=maxTE=TEmax, Tmin=minTE=TEmin.
DDu, v=u-vu+v,
ϑJ=2 cos-1tr Jr2,
ϑBθ=θ,
I=I02q+r+q-rcos2φd-d sinωt,
I=I021-sinθsin2φb-d sinωt,
cosd sinωt=J0d+2J2dcos2ωt+, sind sinωt=2J1dsinωt+2J3dsin3ωt+.
Idc=I0q+r/2,
I1ω=I0q-rJ1dsin2φd,
I2ω=I0q-rJ2dcos2φd,
R1ωI1ω/Idc=2DJ1dsin2φd,
R2ωI2ω/Idc=2DJ2dcos2φd,
B1ωI1ω/Idc=2 sinθJ1dsin2φb,
B2ωI2ω/Idc=-2 sinθJ2dcos2φb.
It=I0+I1 sinωt+I2 cos2ωt+.
F0=I0,
ImFω=-I1/2,
ReF2ω=I2/2,
E0=R-π2QWR RT-π2 R-π4PEM×RT-π4I00=121+exp-id sinωt12i1-exp-id sinωt
E=Rφdt Du, v RTφdt Rφbt Bθt×RTφbt E0,
R1ωtI1ω/Idc=2DtJ1dsin2φbtcos2φdt-2φbt+cosθtcos2φbtsin2φdt-2φbt,
R2ωtI2ω/Idc=2DtJ2dcos2φbtcos2φdt-2φbt-cosθtsin2φbtsin2φdt-2φbt.
R1ωt2DtJ1dsin2φdt,
R2ωt2DtJ2dcos2φdt.
E=R-π4LIN RT-π4QWR Rφdt×Du, v RTφdt Rφbt Bθt RTφbtE0
B1ωt=2J1dDt sin2φbtcos2φdt-2φbt+Dt cosθtcos2φbtsin2φdt-2φbt+2 uvu+vsinθtcos2φbt=R1ωt+2J1d2 uvu+vsinθtcos2φbt,
B2ωt=2J2dDt cos2φbtcos2φdt-2φbt-Dt cosθtsin2φbtsin2φdt-2φbt-2 uvu+vsinθtsin2φbt=R2ωt-2J2d2 uvu+vsinθtsin2φbt,
uvu+v=121-Dt21/2=121-12 Dt2+1/2,
B1ωtR1ωt+2J1dsinθtcos2φbt,
B2ωtR2ωt-2J2dsinθtsin2φbt.
R1ωt-2J1dsinθtcos2φbt, R2ωt2J2dsinθtsin2φbt.
I1ω/Idc=2J1d2 uvu+vcosθt-Dt sinθtsin2φdt-2φbt.
R1ωs2J1dDt sin2φdt+Ds sin2φds,
R2ωs2J2dDt cos2φdt+Ds cos2φds.
B1ωsR1ωs+2J1dsinθtcos2φbt+sinθscos2φbs,
B2ωsR2ωs-2J2dsinθtsin2φbt+sinθssin2φbs.
cosϕ-sinϕsinϕcosϕ
exp-iθ200expiθ2
-i001
exp-id sinωt001
u00v
1000
E=Rφd×Dq, r×Bθ×RTφd×R-π2×QWR×RT-π2×R-π4×PEM×RT-π4×I00.

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