Abstract

The reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays (RBTN-LCDs) with a single front polarizer have been compensated by front half-wave or integer-wave plates or both. The compensation has been optimized through maximizing the contrast ratio. The optimized RBTN-LCDs with one or two retardation plates showed great improvement in contrast ratio. The wavelength-dependent reflectance, viewing-angle properties, and effects of the retardation variation of these optimized RBTNs with retardation compensation were also investigated. The simulation was carried out by using realistic parameters on RBTN modes that have retardation values from 0.30 to 0.85 μm and a low contrast ratio. The viewing-angle properties did not change much before and after the retardation compensation. The reflectance varied little, but the contrast ratio varied significantly with the variation of the retardations of the bistable twisted nematic cells, for both compensated and uncompensated cases. It is shown that a high contrast ratio (100:1), high reflectance (30%), and low dispersion are possible for such RBTN-LCDs with proper retardation compensations. Black-white operations can be realized by compensating RBTN-LCDs.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Berreman, W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3032–3039 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.
  4. T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.
  5. Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2572–2575 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 77–82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. X. Guo, H. S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1210–1216 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. X. Guo, X. W. Sun, “Retardation film compensated transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2046–2052 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Optimization of reflective bistable twisted nematic displays with retardation compensation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1718–1721 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. W. Berreman, “Optics in smoothly varying anisotropic planar structures: application to liquid-crystal twist cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1374–1380 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. See http://www.srgb.com/aboutsrgb.html .
  13. “Multimedia systems and equipment—colour measurement and management—part 2-1: colour management—default RGB colour space—sRGB,” International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, IEC 61966-2-1 (1999-10) Ed. 1.0 (IEC, Geneva, 1999).

2002

J. X. Guo, X. W. Sun, “Retardation film compensated transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2046–2052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Optimization of reflective bistable twisted nematic displays with retardation compensation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1718–1721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Guo, H. S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 77–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1981

D. W. Berreman, W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

Berreman, D. W.

Chiu, H. W.

S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, G.-J.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Guo, J. X.

J. X. Guo, X. W. Sun, “Retardation film compensated transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2046–2052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Guo, H. S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, W. R.

D. W. Berreman, W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, A.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Kang, K. H.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Kim, J. C.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Kim, Y.-S.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Kwok, H. S.

S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Guo, H. S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Optimization of reflective bistable twisted nematic displays with retardation compensation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1718–1721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 77–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lino, S.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Momose, Y.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Nam, K. G.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Noruma, H.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Qian, T. Z.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Sheng, P.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

J. X. Guo, X. W. Sun, “Retardation film compensated transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2046–2052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

Tang, S. T.

S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. L.

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Optimization of reflective bistable twisted nematic displays with retardation compensation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1718–1721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 77–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. W. Berreman, W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “New bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 77–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tang, H. W. Chiu, H. S. Kwok, “Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 632–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Optimization of reflective bistable twisted nematic displays with retardation compensation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1718–1721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. X. Guo, H. S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Guo, X. W. Sun, “Retardation film compensated transmittive bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2046–2052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Kim, G.-J. Choi, Y.-S. Kim, K. H. Kang, T.-H. Yoon, K. G. Nam, “Numerical modeling and optical switching characteristics of a bistable TNLCD,” in International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Volume XXVII (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1997), pp. 33–36.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sato, A. Inoue, Y. Momose, H. Noruma, S. Lino, “A bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD driven by a passive-matrix addressing,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Research Conference(Asia Display ’95) (Society for Information Display, Playa del Ray, Calif., 1995), pp. 259–262.

See http://www.srgb.com/aboutsrgb.html .

“Multimedia systems and equipment—colour measurement and management—part 2-1: colour management—default RGB colour space—sRGB,” International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, IEC 61966-2-1 (1999-10) Ed. 1.0 (IEC, Geneva, 1999).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a parallax-free RBTN-LCD with retardation compensation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion property of the retardation film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra of the bright and dark states of mode 1’s cases in Table 2: original case 1 without retardation compensation and cases 4 and 7 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra of the bright and dark states of mode 2’s cases in Table 2: original case 1 without retardation compensation and case 6 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance spectra of the bright and dark states of mode 3’s cases in Table 2: original case 1 without retardation compensation and cases 4 and 7 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra of the bright and dark states of mode 5’s cases in Table 2: original case 1 without retardation compensation and cases 2 and 4 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color appearances of selected RBTN modes in Table 2. The mode and case numbers correspond to those in Table 2. The “Normal” color graph corresponds to the original light source; the “TN” (twisted nematic) color graph corresponds to the normal TN display.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

View-angle properties of mode 1’s cases in Table 2: (a) original case 1 without retardation compensation and (b) case 4 and (c) case 7 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

View-angle properties of mode 2’s cases in Table 2: (a) original case 1 without retardation compensation and (b) case 6 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

View-angle properties of mode 3’s cases in Table 2: (a) original case 1 without retardation compensation and (b) case 4 and (c) case 7 with retardation compensation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

View-angle properties of mode 5’s cases in Table 2: (a) original case 1 without retardation compensation and (b) case 2 and (c) case 4 with retardation compensation.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RBTN Modes with dΔn Ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 μma

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimized Results of Selected RBTN Modes (Modes 1–5) in Table 1 with Various Kinds of Half-Wave-Plate or Integer-Wave-Plate Compensations or Both

Tables Icon

Table 3 Contrast Ratio and Reflectance of Bright State with Deviations of dΔn for Selected Modes in Table 2a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Optimized Results for Bright-State Color Compensation at Different Contrast Ratio Levels of the Fourth and Seventh Series of Mode 3 in Table 2

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tθexpiπ/200exp-iπ/2T-θcos αsin α=cos2θ-αexpiπ/2sin2θ-αexpiπ/2,
cos αinsin αin
αin=2θ-α.
α=2θ-αout,
TθBexpiπ/200exp-iπ/2T-θBTθA×expiπ/200exp-iπ/2×T-θAcos αsin α=-cos2θB-2θA+αsin2θB-2θA+α,
cos αinsin αin
αin=2θA-2θB+α.
α=2θB-2θA+αout.
Rϕ=400700 Rα, γ, ϕ, dΔnfλdλ,

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