Abstract

A stereovision method for estimating the height of connecting pins on a microchip is described. The technique uses a centroidal method to simplify the calculation. A few seconds are required for a Pentium 586 PC to calculate the heights of 300 connecting pins on a 50 mm × 50 mm microchip. The method is described, and experimental results are presented. The optical system, which consists of two CCD cameras with long-focal-length lenses and a two-channel digital image grabber, is capable of in situ measurement.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, “Automated analysis of 3-D shape and surface strain distributions of a moving object using stereo vision,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 18, 195–212 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. F. Luo, S. S. Liou, “Measurement of curved surface by stereo vision and error analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 471–486 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “A holographic technique featuring broad range sensitivity to contour diffuse objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).
  12. S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.
  15. B. F. Alexander, K. C. Ng, “Elimination of systematic error in sub-pixel accuracy centroid estimation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1320–1331 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. S. Sirkis, “System response to automated grid method,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1485–1493 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. M. Salomon, T. A. Glavich, “Image signal processing in sub-pixel accuracy star trackers,” in Smart Sensors II, D. F. Barbe, ed., Proc. SPIE252, 64–74 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, S. S. Liou, “Measurement of curved surface by stereo vision and error analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 471–486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

1998 (2)

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

1993 (2)

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, “Automated analysis of 3-D shape and surface strain distributions of a moving object using stereo vision,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 18, 195–212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “A holographic technique featuring broad range sensitivity to contour diffuse objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Alexander, K. C. Ng, “Elimination of systematic error in sub-pixel accuracy centroid estimation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1320–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

Aguilar, J. J.

J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, B. F.

B. F. Alexander, K. C. Ng, “Elimination of systematic error in sub-pixel accuracy centroid estimation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1320–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. J.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

Chiang, F. P.

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. B.

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

Franze, B.

Fujigaki, M.

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, “Automated analysis of 3-D shape and surface strain distributions of a moving object using stereo vision,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 18, 195–212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glavich, T. A.

P. M. Salomon, T. A. Glavich, “Image signal processing in sub-pixel accuracy star trackers,” in Smart Sensors II, D. F. Barbe, ed., Proc. SPIE252, 64–74 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haible, P.

He, X. Y.

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joenathan, C.

Kang, X.

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kao, I.

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liou, S. S.

P. F. Luo, S. S. Liou, “Measurement of curved surface by stereo vision and error analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 471–486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lope, M. A.

J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lou, M.

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

Luo, P. F.

P. F. Luo, S. S. Liou, “Measurement of curved surface by stereo vision and error analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 471–486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, “Automated analysis of 3-D shape and surface strain distributions of a moving object using stereo vision,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 18, 195–212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. C.

B. F. Alexander, K. C. Ng, “Elimination of systematic error in sub-pixel accuracy centroid estimation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1320–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peters, W. H.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pflug, L.

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “A holographic technique featuring broad range sensitivity to contour diffuse objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poo, A. N.

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

Quan, C.

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “A holographic technique featuring broad range sensitivity to contour diffuse objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, P. M.

P. M. Salomon, T. A. Glavich, “Image signal processing in sub-pixel accuracy star trackers,” in Smart Sensors II, D. F. Barbe, ed., Proc. SPIE252, 64–74 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shang, H. M.

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

Shi, L.

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

Sirkis, J. S.

J. S. Sirkis, “System response to automated grid method,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1485–1493 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M. A.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. J.

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

Tiziani, H. J.

Torres, F.

J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. F.

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S.

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zou, D.

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Mech. (1)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional displacement in deformable bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Packaging (1)

S. Wei, S. Wu, I. Kao, F. P. Chiang, “Measurement of wafer surface using shadow moiré with Talbot effect,” J. Electron. Packaging 120, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydro-formed shell,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 19, 88–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “A holographic technique featuring broad range sensitivity to contour diffuse objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1673–1683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Measurement (1)

J. J. Aguilar, F. Torres, M. A. Lope, “Stereo vision for 3D measurement: accuracy analysis, calibration and industrial applications,” Measurement 18, 193–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Quan, X. Y. He, C. F. Wang, C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, “Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting,” Opt. Commun. 189, 21–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (5)

C. J. Tay, X. Y. He, X. Kang, C. Quan, H. M. Shang, “Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1608–1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, “Application of stereo vision to three-dimensional deformation analyses in fracture experiments,” Opt. Eng. 33, 981–990 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, Y. Guo, “Phase-shifting analysis in moiré interferometry and its application in electronic packaging,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1410–1419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Alexander, K. C. Ng, “Elimination of systematic error in sub-pixel accuracy centroid estimation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1320–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “System response to automated grid method,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1485–1493 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (3)

Y. Morimoto, M. Fujigaki, “Automated analysis of 3-D shape and surface strain distributions of a moving object using stereo vision,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 18, 195–212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Luo, S. S. Liou, “Measurement of curved surface by stereo vision and error analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 471–486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, A. N. Poo, M. Lou, “On the determination of slope by shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 20, 207–217 (1994).

Printed Circuit Fabrication (1)

B. Chen, L. Shi, X. Y. He, J. B. Dai, S. Liu, “Projected grating moiré,” Printed Circuit Fabrication 22, 36, 38–39 (1999), in Chinese.

Other (1)

P. M. Salomon, T. A. Glavich, “Image signal processing in sub-pixel accuracy star trackers,” in Smart Sensors II, D. F. Barbe, ed., Proc. SPIE252, 64–74 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of stereovision.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration of the perpendicularity between the actual substrate plane and the symmetrical axis of the angle formed by two CCD camera axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

View of the microchip being tested.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pair of images of the connecting pins’ top ends: (a) from the left CCD camera and (b) from the right CCD camera.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Centroids of the top ends of the connecting pins.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Height distribution of cross section AA and (b) height in gray-scale values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the pin height across section BB marked in Fig. 7(b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three-dimensional plot of the heights of connecting pins on a microchip.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

xlylzl=cos θ0-sin θ010sin θ0cos θx+Δ2yz,
xryrzr=cos θ0sin θ010-sin θ0cos θx-Δ2yz,
xlyl=-Mlxlyl,
xryr=-Mrxryr.
xlyl=-Mlx+Δ2cos θ-z sin θy,
xryr=-Mrx-Δ2cos θ+z sin θy.
xr-xl=-M2z sin θ-Δ cos θ,
yr-yl=-My-y=0,
z=12 sin θΔ cos θ-xr-xlM.
z0=Δ2 tan θ,
z=z0-xr-xl2M sin θ,
h=z0-z=xr-xl2M sin θ=kxr-xl,
xc=L xgx, yL gx, y,
δ1=kxr,1-xl,1,
δ2=kxr,2-xl,2,
k=δ2-δ1Δxr-Δxl,
x-xAy-yAh-hAxB-xAyB-yAhB-hAxC-xAyC-yAhC-hA=0,

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