Abstract

The mechanism for inscription of electric-arc-induced long-period gratings in SMF28 fiber was studied. The refractive-index profiles of irradiated fiber samples were measured, and their structures were investigated by Raman and luminescence spectroscopy. Slight geometrical deformations of the irradiated fiber were measured. A significant change in the Raman spectrum range from 200 to 700 cm-1 caused by the electric arc is reported. The results show a decrease in the intensity of this band, indicating a modification, such as densification, of the glass structure. No modification of the fictive temperature was measured. A large increase in the red luminescence band was also observed and attests to the creation of defects in the fiber network structure.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vensarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 336–338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. B. Stegall, T. Erdogan, “Dispersion control with use of long period fiber gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 304–312 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation using uniform long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Bathia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 646–648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, “High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574–1579 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Yu. N. Pyrkov, “UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation of germanoscilicates glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1754–1756 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Chan, T. Husser, S. Risbud, D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1726–1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Characterization at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. L. Galeener, “Planar rings in glasses,” Solid. State Commun. 44, 1037–1040 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Jäckle, “Low frequency Raman scattering in glasses,” in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 135–160.
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Characterization at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation using uniform long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Husser, S. Risbud, D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, “High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574–1579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Yu. N. Pyrkov, “UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation of germanoscilicates glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1754–1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. M. Vensarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 336–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bathia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

F. L. Galeener, “Planar rings in glasses,” Solid. State Commun. 44, 1037–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bathia, V.

Bell, P. M.

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

DaCosta, A.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Das, M.

M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation using uniform long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

Dianov, E. M.

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duval, E.

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

D. B. Stegall, T. Erdogan, “Dispersion control with use of long period fiber gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 304–312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, “Planar rings in glasses,” Solid. State Commun. 44, 1037–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hemley, R. J.

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henninot, J. F.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Characterization at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Husser, T.

Ikuta, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jäckle, J.

J. Jäckle, “Low frequency Raman scattering in glasses,” in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 135–160.
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vensarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 336–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kisliuk, A.

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koltashev, V. V.

Kondo, Y.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vensarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 336–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Characterization at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, H. K.

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Mysen, B. O.

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nouchi, K.

Novikov, V. N.

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vensarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “Long-period fiber-grating based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 336–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Polsky, C. H.

C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pyrkov, Yu. N.

Rego, G.

Risbud, S.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. H.

C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, A. P.

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegall, D. B.

Sulimov, V.

Thyagarajan, K.

M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation using uniform long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bathia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vensarkar, A. M.

Watanabe, M.

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, G. H.

C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre gratings fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. N. Novikov, E. Duval, A. Kisliuk, A. P. Sokolov, “A model of low-frequency Raman scattering in glasses comparison of Brillouin and Raman data,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4691–4698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, “High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574–1579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. H. Polsky, K. H. Smith, G. H. Wolf, “Effect of pressure on absolute Raman scattering cross section of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 248, 159–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation using uniform long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Characterization at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 208, 329–335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, B. O. Mysen, “Raman spectroscopy of SiO2 glass at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747–750 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, M. Hirano, “Physical disorder and optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet region of amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid. State Commun. (1)

F. L. Galeener, “Planar rings in glasses,” Solid. State Commun. 44, 1037–1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Jäckle, “Low frequency Raman scattering in glasses,” in Amorphous Solids, W. A. Phillips, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 135–160.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for LPFGs. The fiber is pulled after each discharge, as indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profiles of a virgin (solid curve) and an irradiated (dashed curve) sample with a 9-mA and 1-s electric-arc current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectroscopy setup. The fiber sample (irradiated or not) is excited by an argon laser source (488 nm and 50 mW). The spatial filter selects the zone of the sample to be studied. PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of a sample irradiated with two different modes (LP02 and LP11).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of Raman spectra of a virgin SMF28 fiber and of a periodically irradiated fiber. The irradiation was performed with a 9-mA electric-arc current and an exposure time of 1 s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminescence spectra of the sample before and after electric discharge.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement of Index Profiles of Irradiated Samples with Various Electric-Arc Parameters

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