Abstract

The behavior of a temperature self-compensating, fiber, long-period grating (LPG) device is studied. This device consists of a single 325-μm-period LPG recorded across two sections of a single-mode B-Ge-codoped fiber—one section bare and the other coated with a 1-μm thickness of Ag. This structure generates two attenuation bands associated with the eighth and ninth cladding modes, which are spectrally close together (∼60 nm). The attenuation band associated with the Ag-coated section is unaffected by changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium and can be used to compensate for the temperature of the bare-fiber section. The sensor has a resolution of ±1.0 × 10-3 for the refractive index and ±0.3 °C for the temperature. The effect of bending on the spectral characteristics of the two attenuation bands was found to be nonlinear, with the Ag-coated LPG having the greater sensitivity.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Ruan, X. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, “The design and simulation of cascade long-period fiber gratings for flattening EDFA’s gain,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties and Applications V, F. T. Yu, S. Yin, eds., Proc. SPIE3801, 240–245 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Su, L. A. Wang, “Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 331–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “Long-period gratings with variable coupling for real-time sensing applications,” Opt. Lett. 25, 203–205 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 191, 181–190 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Exeter, 1980).
  19. W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” in Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, R. O. Claus, W. B. Spillman, eds., Proc. SPIE3330, 284–292 (1998).

2001 (3)

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 191, 181–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “Long-period gratings with variable coupling for real-time sensing applications,” Opt. Lett. 25, 203–205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. D. Su, L. A. Wang, “Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 331–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 191, 181–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 191, 181–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Exeter, 1980).

Bucholtz, F.

Choi, S.

M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W.-H.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R.

V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D’Alberto, T.

V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dockney, M. L.

W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” in Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, R. O. Claus, W. B. Spillman, eds., Proc. SPIE3330, 284–292 (1998).

Eggleton, B.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Grubsky, V.

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B.

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, P. J.

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Y. Ruan, X. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, “The design and simulation of cascade long-period fiber gratings for flattening EDFA’s gain,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties and Applications V, F. T. Yu, S. Yin, eds., Proc. SPIE3801, 240–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, W.

W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Ruan, X. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, “The design and simulation of cascade long-period fiber gratings for flattening EDFA’s gain,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties and Applications V, F. T. Yu, S. Yin, eds., Proc. SPIE3801, 240–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A.

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Lee, B.

M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” in Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, R. O. Claus, W. B. Spillman, eds., Proc. SPIE3330, 284–292 (1998).

Liu, Y.

Patrick, H.

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pedrazzani, J.

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Y. Ruan, X. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, “The design and simulation of cascade long-period fiber gratings for flattening EDFA’s gain,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties and Applications V, F. T. Yu, S. Yin, eds., Proc. SPIE3801, 240–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

M. Song, S. Lee, S. Choi, B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement temperature and strain using two fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a glass tube,” Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 3, 194–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. D.

C. D. Su, L. A. Wang, “Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 331–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” in Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, R. O. Claus, W. B. Spillman, eds., Proc. SPIE3330, 284–292 (1998).

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” in Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, R. O. Claus, W. B. Spillman, eds., Proc. SPIE3330, 284–292 (1998).

Tatam, R. P.

W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A.

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. Sipe, “Long-period gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, J.

Y. Ruan, X. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Wang, “The design and simulation of cascade long-period fiber gratings for flattening EDFA’s gain,” in Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties and Applications V, F. T. Yu, S. Yin, eds., Proc. SPIE3801, 240–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

C. D. Su, L. A. Wang, “Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 331–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

H. Patrick, G. Williams, A. Kersey, J. Pedrazzani, A. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Exeter, 1980).

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zabaronick, N.

V. Bhatia, T. D’Alberto, N. Zabaronick, R. Claus, “Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period gratings sensor for smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1872–1875 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, B. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 191, 181–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

R. P. Espindola, R. Windeler, A. Abramov, B. Eggleton, T. Strasser, D. DiGiovanni, “External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 327–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W.-H. Chung, X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, P. J. Henderson, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Simultaneous strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a multiplexed in-fibre-Bragg-grating/fibre-Fabry-Perot sensor system,” Electron. Lett. 33, 385–387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Su, L. A. Wang, “Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating,” Electron. Lett. 35, 331–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber LPG sensing device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectrum during fabrication of the LPG (period = 325 μm, length L = 4 cm) in 1-μm Ag-coated B-Ge-codoped optical fiber. (b) Transmission spectrum during the fabrication of the LPG (period = 325 μm, L = 4 cm) in the bare-fiber section. Traces offset for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of temperature on the transmission spectrum of the LPG fiber device over a range 22–82 °C. Arrows show the direction of increasing temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral sensitivity of the two attenuation bands associated with each section of the LPG fiber device as a function of temperature change. Linear fits to the points are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of increasing refractive index of the surrounding medium on the transmission spectrum of the LPG fiber device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental spectral sensitivity of the attenuation band associated with the bare-fiber section of the LPG fiber device as a function of n s .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the bending apparatus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental central wavelength shift of the attenuation bands as a function of curvature subjected to the LPG device.

Equations (1)

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R=2/dd2+L2,

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