Abstract

For better knowledge of the carbon cycle, there is a need for spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Because the gradients are relatively small, the accuracy requirements are better than 1%. We analyze the feasibility of a CO2-weighted-column estimate, using the differential absorption technique, from high-resolution spectroscopic measurements in the 1.6- and 2-μm CO2 absorption bands. Several sources of uncertainty that can be neglected for other gases with less stringent accuracy requirements need to be assessed. We attempt a quantification of errors due to the radiometric noise, uncertainties in the temperature, humidity and surface pressure uncertainty, spectroscopic coefficients, and atmospheric scattering. Atmospheric scattering is the major source of error [5 parts per 106 (ppm) for a subvisual cirrus cloud with an assumed optical thickness of 0.03], and additional research is needed to properly assess the accuracy of correction methods. Spectroscopic data are currently a major source of uncertainty but can be improved with specific ground-based sunphotometry measurements. The other sources of error amount to several ppm, which is less than, but close to, the accuracy requirements. Fortunately, these errors are mostly random and will therefore be reduced by proper averaging.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

A. Chedin, A. Hollingsworth, N. A. Scott, R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, C. Clerbaux, J. Etcheto, R. Armante, “The feasibility of monitoring CO2 from high-resolution infrared sounders,” J. Geophys. Res. D 108, 10.1029/2001JD001443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

Z. Yang, G. C. Toon, J. S. Margolis, P. O. Wennberg, “Atmospheric CO2 retrieved from ground-based near IR solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget: II. CO2 column from differential absorption of relected sunlight in the 1.61-μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

Z. Kuang, J. S. Margolis, G. C. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298. (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Chedin, S. Serrar, R. Armante, N. A. Scott, A. Hollingsworth, “Signatures of annual and seasonal variations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from comparisons between NOAA TOVS observations and radiation model simulations,” J. Clim. 15, 95–116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, T. Aoki, M. Fukabori, “Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4945–4957 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

B. T. Tolton, D. Plouffe, “Sensitivity of radiometric measurements of the atmospheric CO2 column from space,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1305–1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Engelen, A. S. Denning, K. R. Gurney, G. L. Stephens, “Global observations of the carbon budget: 1. Expected satellite capabilities for emission spectroscopy in the EOS and NPOESS eras,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20055–20068 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rayner, D. M. O’Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Buchwitz, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A near-infrared optimized DOAS method for the fast global retrieval of atmospheric CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, and N2O total column amounts from SCIAMACHY Envisat-1 nadir radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15231–15245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

P. J. Rayner, I. G. Enting, R. J. Francey, R. Langenfelds, “Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, δ13C and O2/N2 observations,” Tellus Ser. B 51, 213–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 1. Method and control inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26161–26178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 2. Sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26179–26193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, “DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994–1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

F. M. Breon, S. Bouffies, “Land surface pressure estimate from measurements in the oxygen A absorption band,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 69–77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

I. G. Enting, C. M. Trudinger, R. J. Francey, “A synthesis inversion of the concentration and δ13C of atmospheric CO2,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 35–52 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern-hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air-sampling network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The Polder mission—instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltenkopf, W. R. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurements of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, NO2, and SO2 by differential optical absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Humlicek, “An efficient method for evaluation of the complex probability function: the Voigt function and its derivatives,” J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 309–313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. W. Brewer, C. T. Mc Elroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1941 (1)

L. G. Henyey, J. L. Greenstein, “Diffusive radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

Arie, E.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armante, R.

A. Chedin, A. Hollingsworth, N. A. Scott, R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, C. Clerbaux, J. Etcheto, R. Armante, “The feasibility of monitoring CO2 from high-resolution infrared sounders,” J. Geophys. Res. D 108, 10.1029/2001JD001443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Chedin, S. Serrar, R. Armante, N. A. Scott, A. Hollingsworth, “Signatures of annual and seasonal variations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from comparisons between NOAA TOVS observations and radiation model simulations,” J. Clim. 15, 95–116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

R. Beer, Remote Sensing by Fourier Transform Spectrometry, (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1992).

Bjoraker, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, B.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouffies, S.

F. M. Breon, S. Bouffies, “Land surface pressure estimate from measurements in the oxygen A absorption band,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 69–77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 2. Sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26179–26193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 1. Method and control inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26161–26178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowker, D. E.

D. E. Bowker, R. E. Davis, D. L. Myrick, K. Stacy, W. T. Jones, “Spectral reflectances of natural targets for use in remote sensing studies,” NASA Ref. Publ.1139 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Bramstedt, K.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
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Breon, F. M.

F. M. Breon, S. Bouffies, “Land surface pressure estimate from measurements in the oxygen A absorption band,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 69–77 (1996).
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P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The Polder mission—instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
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Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. Mc Elroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere,” Nature 246, 129–133 (1973).
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Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The Polder mission—instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
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Brown, L. R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Buchwitz, M.

M. Buchwitz, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A near-infrared optimized DOAS method for the fast global retrieval of atmospheric CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, and N2O total column amounts from SCIAMACHY Envisat-1 nadir radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15231–15245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The Polder mission—instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

M. Buchwitz, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “A near-infrared optimized DOAS method for the fast global retrieval of atmospheric CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, and N2O total column amounts from SCIAMACHY Envisat-1 nadir radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15231–15245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, “DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994–1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
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Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Champion, J. P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin, A. Hollingsworth, N. A. Scott, R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, C. Clerbaux, J. Etcheto, R. Armante, “The feasibility of monitoring CO2 from high-resolution infrared sounders,” J. Geophys. Res. D 108, 10.1029/2001JD001443 (2003).
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A. Chedin, S. Serrar, R. Armante, N. A. Scott, A. Hollingsworth, “Signatures of annual and seasonal variations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from comparisons between NOAA TOVS observations and radiation model simulations,” J. Clim. 15, 95–116 (2002).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Chursin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciais, P.

P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 1. Method and control inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26161–26178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Monfray, “Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 2. Sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26179–26193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern-hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerbaux, C.

A. Chedin, A. Hollingsworth, N. A. Scott, R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, C. Clerbaux, J. Etcheto, R. Armante, “The feasibility of monitoring CO2 from high-resolution infrared sounders,” J. Geophys. Res. D 108, 10.1029/2001JD001443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air-sampling network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
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Crisp, D.

Z. Kuang, J. S. Margolis, G. C. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298. (2002).
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Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. E.

D. E. Bowker, R. E. Davis, D. L. Myrick, K. Stacy, W. T. Jones, “Spectral reflectances of natural targets for use in remote sensing studies,” NASA Ref. Publ.1139 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1985).

DeBeek, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denning, A. S.

R. J. Engelen, A. S. Denning, K. R. Gurney, G. L. Stephens, “Global observations of the carbon budget: 1. Expected satellite capabilities for emission spectroscopy in the EOS and NPOESS eras,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20055–20068 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The Polder mission—instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Echle, G.

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, K. U.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisinger, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Eisinger, A. Ladstatter-Weissenmayer, J. P. Burrows, “DOAS zenith sky observations: 2. Seasonal variation of BrO over Bremen (53 degrees N) 1994–1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 83–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J.

R. J. Engelen, A. S. Denning, K. R. Gurney, G. L. Stephens, “Global observations of the carbon budget: 1. Expected satellite capabilities for emission spectroscopy in the EOS and NPOESS eras,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20055–20068 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Enting, I. G.

P. J. Rayner, I. G. Enting, R. J. Francey, R. Langenfelds, “Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, δ13C and O2/N2 observations,” Tellus Ser. B 51, 213–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Enting, C. M. Trudinger, R. J. Francey, “A synthesis inversion of the concentration and δ13C of atmospheric CO2,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 35–52 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Etcheto, J.

A. Chedin, A. Hollingsworth, N. A. Scott, R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, C. Clerbaux, J. Etcheto, R. Armante, “The feasibility of monitoring CO2 from high-resolution infrared sounders,” J. Geophys. Res. D 108, 10.1029/2001JD001443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fourrie, N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Francey, R. J.

P. J. Rayner, I. G. Enting, R. J. Francey, R. Langenfelds, “Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, δ13C and O2/N2 observations,” Tellus Ser. B 51, 213–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern-hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Enting, C. M. Trudinger, R. J. Francey, “A synthesis inversion of the concentration and δ13C of atmospheric CO2,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 35–52 (1995).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air-sampling network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CO2 column estimation relies on the measurement of the solar radiance reflected on the Earth’s surface back to the TOA. Atmospheric scattering, which allows photons to be measured that have not traversed the full double atmospheric path, is a source of bias for the column estimates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated spectrum of atmospheric transmission in the SWIR region showing regions of CO2 absorption around 1.6 and 2.0 μm. In the calculation the densities of the absorbers in the atmosphere were supposed to follow typical tropical profiles. The SZA and view zenithal angle (VZA) were set to 45 deg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated glint reflectances in the specular direction as a function of wind speed for various SZAs θ s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cumulative histograms of Sun-glint reflectance over ocean surface produced by POLDER. The histogram functions were computed from a complete database of 37,074 observations and different subsets of this database arranged by SZA θ s .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of surface reflectance in cloud-free composite images produced by MODIS for the spectral bands 1.628–1.652 μm (dotted curve) and 2.105–2.155 μm (solid curves) over different land surface covers. The two well-packed histograms are for the Amazonian forest. The two histograms with a maximum at 0.7 are for the desert. The two histograms with a broad distribution around 0.15 are for Greenland.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral transmissions for the 2.0-μm channel (top) and the 1.6-μm channel (bottom), as simulated by our radiative transfer model. The CO2, H2O, and solar transmissions are shown by the solid, dashed, and dotted lines, respectively. In the calculation, CO2 concentration was fixed to 370 ppm throughout the atmospheric column. The SZA and VZA were set to 45 deg. The solar spectrum was produced at the Kitt Peak National Observatory by the National Science Foundation, National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Predicted vertical weighting functions as a function of pressure (dimensionless averaging kernels). The dashed and solid curves are for the 1.6- and the 2.0-μm channels, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Retrieval error of the CO2-weighted concentration as a function of the instrumental SNR. Dashed and solid curves, the 1.6- and the 2.0-μm channels, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CO2-weighted concentration rms error due to uncertainty on the temperature profile as a function of latitude in the 2.0-μm channel (solid curve) and the 1.6-μm channel (dashed curve). The dotted curve shows the achievable error by use of simultaneous measurements in both bands. The simulation used 1000 synthetically noised temperature profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative change of CO2 line intensity caused by a unit degree perturbation of temperature as a function of temperature for various lower state energies E″. Partition sum functions used in the computation are issued from HITRAN 2000.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dimensionless temperature-averaging kernels for the 2.0-μm channel (solid curve) and the 1.6-μm channel (dashed curve).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Correlation between εCO21.6 and εCO22.0. The calculation used the same field of noised temperature profiles as for Fig. 9.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Retrieval error of the CO2-weighted concentration owing to atmospheric scattering as a function of the scatterer optical thickness. We considered the case of a cirrus cloud distributed around 250 hPa and a boundary-layer aerosol distributed around 900 hPa. The simulation was made for a SZA and a VZA of 45 deg and a surface reflectance of 0.2. The dashed and solid curves are for the 1.6- and the 2.0-μm channels, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variables and Constants Used in This Paper Together with Typical Values When They Exist

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparative Study of the Two Envisioned Spectral Windows

Tables Icon

Table 3 Estimate of the Various Error Sources Identified and Quantified in this Paper for the Retrieval of CO2-Weighted-Column Concentration from Space

Equations (26)

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L=EsμsRsurftatm/π,
tatmλ=exp-mNair0Psurf rPkλ, P, TdP,
r¯= 1Psurf0Psurf rPdP.
tatmλ=exp-mNairkλPsurfr¯,
Δr¯r¯= Δtatmtatm1lntatm.
Rsurf=π*ρi/4* cos4βμsμvPws,
Pwsβ=1/πσ2exp-tan2β/σ2,
σ2=0.003+5.12×10-3v.
SNR=neδνΔti/neΔνΔti1/2,
ne=A2t¯inst¯optt¯filtert¯atmRsurfEsμsD2η/4z2hcv.
x=IFx, b, b.
x=IFx, b+b, b.
x=x-x.
f=-lnF,
fx=fxa+Kx-xa,
y=fxa+Kx-xa,
x=xa+KTSy-1K+Sa-1-1KTSyy-fxa,
S=KTSy-1K+Sa-1-1,
0P0 rˆwPdP=0Psurf rPwPdP,
rˆ= 0Psurf rPwPdP0P0 wPdP.
Δrˆrˆ= 0Psurf+ΔPsurf rPwPdP-0Psurf rPwPdP0Psurf wPdP.
Δrˆrˆ= wPsurf0Psurf wPdP ΔPsurf
Δrˆrˆ=wnPsurfΔPsurfPsurf,
Si=Si0QT0/QTexp-c2Ei1/T0-1/T,
εCO21.6=αεCO22.0,
rˆCO2= rˆCO21.6-αrˆCO22.01-α,

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