Abstract

A frequency-locked, injection-seeded, pulsed optical parametric generator (OPG) has been developed for short-range infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) applications. The periodically poled lithium niobate OPG is pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser and is seeded by a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. The OPG is designed for DIAL measurement of a narrow R-branch transition of methane at 3.2704 μm. The output of the OPG is a two-pulse sequence with a 100-μs temporal separation between the pulses, where the first pulse is absorbed by methane and the second pulse is not absorbed. The first pulse is actively locked to the methane absorption feature by use of the derivative of the transmission spectrum through a reference cell. Although the device was not optimized for output power, the 3.27-μm OPG output energies of the first and second pulses are 5.5 and 5.9 μJ, respectively, producing 21 mW when operated at 1818 Hz.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA airborne oceanographic lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.
  3. R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.
  7. R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Laurell, “Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources,” Opt. Mater. 11, 235–244 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. W. Aniolek, R. L. Schmitt, T. J. Kulp, B. A. Richman, S. E. Bisson, P. E. Powers, “Microlaser-pumped periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator-optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 557–559 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. The monolithic Nd:YAG laser was fabricated by Onyx Optics, Dublin, Calif.
  17. J. J. Zayhowski, “Periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric amplifiers pumped by high-power passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 169–171 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. B. Khurgin, F. Jin, G. Solyar, C.-C. Wang, S. Trivedi, “Cost-effective low timing jitter passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state laser with composite pumping pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1095–1097 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, F. Jin, G. Solyar, C.-C. Wang, S. Trivedi, “Cost-effective low timing jitter passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state laser with composite pumping pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1095–1097 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA airborne oceanographic lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Aniolek, R. L. Schmitt, T. J. Kulp, B. A. Richman, S. E. Bisson, P. E. Powers, “Microlaser-pumped periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator-optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 557–559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, “Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources,” Opt. Mater. 11, 235–244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski, “Periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric amplifiers pumped by high-power passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 169–171 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Allen, M. G.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aniolek, K. W.

Anstett, G.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, K.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Bäder, U.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Barth, H.-D.

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birtola, S.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Bisson, S. E.

Blake, G. A.

S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borsutzky, A.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cornwell, D. M.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Ehret, G.

A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friel, G. J.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galech, J.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, T. D.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goers, U.-B.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Goldberg, L.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Green, B. D.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

Iseki, T.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

Kapinus, V. A.

S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kimura, K.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Koplow, J. P.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Kulp, T. J.

K. W. Aniolek, R. L. Schmitt, T. J. Kulp, B. A. Richman, S. E. Bisson, P. E. Powers, “Microlaser-pumped periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator-optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 557–559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Larotonda, M. A.

M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, “Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources,” Opt. Mater. 11, 235–244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ley, J. M.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukemire, A.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Makarov, V.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, O. E.

M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marzouk, J.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Matthey, R.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McRae, T. G.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Meyn, J.-P.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mileti, G.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milton, M. J. T.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Molero, F.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morandi, M.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naper, R.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Powers, P. E.

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rall, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

Ray, M. D.

M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

Santacesaria, V.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schirtzinger, C. R.

Schmitt, R. L.

Sedlacek, A. J.

M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, B. D.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solyar, G.

Sommers, R.

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

Stafford-Evans, J.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Tai, H.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, S.

Turin, A.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

Weiss, V.

A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, M. A.

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

Wu, M.

M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yacomotti, A. M.

M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, M. A. White, J. Stafford-Evans, R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, U. Bäder, G. Anstett, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, A. Borsutzky, “Pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning of an injection seeded nanosecond optical parametric generator with 10 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Iseki, H. Tai, K. Kimura, “A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594–602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Wu, V. A. Kapinus, G. A. Blake, “A nanosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier seeded by an external cavity diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 159, 74–79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Larotonda, A. M. Yacomotti, O. E. Martínez, “Antiphase Q-switch dynamics in a multimode solid-state laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 169, 149–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Laurell, “Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources,” Opt. Mater. 11, 235–244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Ehret, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 837–852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. D. Ray, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Wu, “Ultraviolet mini-Raman lidar for stand-off, in situ identification of chemical surface contaminants,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3485–3489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U.-B. Goers, K. Armstrong, R. Sommers, T. J. Kulp, D. A. V. Kliner, S. Birtola, L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, T. G. McRae, “Development of a compact gas imaging sensor employing a cw fiber-amp-pumped PPLN OPO,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 521.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. M. Cornwell, J. Marzouk, A. Lukemire, J. Baker, “Anarctic miniature lidar,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 436–437.

R. Matthey, V. Mitev, G. Mileti, V. Makarov, A. Turin, M. Morandi, V. Santacesaria, “Miniature aerosal lidar for automated airborne application,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 44–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

The monolithic Nd:YAG laser was fabricated by Onyx Optics, Dublin, Calif.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the microlaser-pumped OPG including all the optical components: μ-laser, microlaser; bd, beam dump; pol, polarizer; p-h amp, peak-hold amplifier; bs, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the diode laser-pumped monolithic passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. It consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of undoped YAG, a 7-mm-thick piece of a 1.1% doped Nd:YAG, a 1.9-mm-thick piece of Cr4+:YAG, and an 8-mm-thick piece of undoped YAG diffusion bonded together.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Etalon traces of the first (upper trace) and second (lower trace) frequency-doubled microlaser pulses. The spacings between the concentric rings represent the free spectral range of the etalon, and the offset between the two patterns indicates the frequency difference between the two pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near- and far-field images of the two pulses: (a) near-field image of first pulse, (b) near-field image of second pulse, (c) far-field image of first pulse, (d) far-field image of second pulse. The diamond-shaped outline to the beam profiles in (c) and (d) is an image of the Pockels cell mentioned in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Methane cell transmission and (b) derivative of transmission used for frequency control. The 10-cm-long absorption cell has ∼1% methane in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The peak absorption wavelength corresponds to 3.2704 μm (3057.7 cm-1), and the tuning range represents ∼1 cm-1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Test of derivative locking scheme: (a) displays the temperature ramp forcing function, (b) displays the transmission through the methane reference cell with the frequency control off, (c) displays the transmission with the frequency control on, and (d) is a vertically expanded version of (c) to display the variation of the transmission with temperature.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the Pulse-Pair Sequencea

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