Abstract

A new entrance optic for a Brewer spectrophotometer has been designed and tested both in the laboratory and during solar measurements. The integrated cosine response deviates by 2.4% from the ideal, with an uncertainty of ±1%. The systematic uncertainties of global solar irradiance measurements with this new entrance optic are considerably reduced compared with measurements with the traditional design. Simultaneous solar irradiance measurements between the Brewer spectrophotometer and a spectroradiometer equipped with a state-of-the-art shaped diffuser agreed to within ±2% during a five-day measurement period.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. World Health Organization, “Ultraviolet radiation,” in Environmental Health Criteria 160 (World Health Organization, New York, 1994).
  2. J. Herman, R. McKenzie, “Ultraviolet radiation at the earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).
  3. G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).
  4. German Institute of Standardization, DIN 5032 Teil 1, Deutsche Normen Series (Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
  5. G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. G. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, “Design of an input optic for solar UV measurements,” Internet Photochem. Photobiol. (1998), http://www.photobiology.com/UVR98/schreder/index.htm .
  7. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectrophotometer for its angular response error,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6339–6344 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Wardle, Experimental Studies Division Meteorological Service of Canada Downsview, Canada (personal communication, 1998).
  10. W. Jordan, TB/L-M, OSRAM GmbH, Munich, Germany (personal communication, 2001).
  11. P. Görts, “First lamp comparison PTB-DXW-NLR,” Laboratory of Radiation Research, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (2002).
  12. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Laboratory Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers,” in Advances in Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiomtery, European Commission Air Pollution Research Report (European Commission, Paris, 1997) vol. 63.
  13. J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Morten, B. Kjeldsad, “11 all-weather ultraviolet solar spectra retrieved at 0.5 Hz sampling rate,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6247–6252 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Schreder, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 2002).

1999

1998

1997

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Bais, A. F.

Balis, D.

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Blumthaler, M.

A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectrophotometer for its angular response error,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6339–6344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Booth, C. R.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Disterhoft, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Eriksen, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Evans, W. F. J.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Feister, U.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Laboratory Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers,” in Advances in Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiomtery, European Commission Air Pollution Research Report (European Commission, Paris, 1997) vol. 63.

Gericke, K.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Görts, P.

P. Görts, “First lamp comparison PTB-DXW-NLR,” Laboratory of Radiation Research, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (2002).

Grewe, R.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gröbner, J.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, “Ultraviolet radiation at the earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

Huber, M.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, W.

W. Jordan, TB/L-M, OSRAM GmbH, Munich, Germany (personal communication, 2001).

Kazadzis, S.

Kerr, J. B.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P. J.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Laboratory Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers,” in Advances in Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiomtery, European Commission Air Pollution Research Report (European Commission, Paris, 1997) vol. 63.

Kjeldsad, B.

Kuik, F.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, “Ultraviolet radiation at the earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Miyauchi, M.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Morten, T.

Olafson, R. A.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Reinen, H.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, C.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Schreder, J.

J. Schreder, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 2002).

Seckmeyer, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Slaper, H.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D.

D. Wardle, Experimental Studies Division Meteorological Service of Canada Downsview, Canada (personal communication, 1998).

Wardle, D. I.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C. S.

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Let.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement erros due to a non-ideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

U. Feister, R. Grewe, K. Gericke, “A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance,” Sol. Energy 60, 313–332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. G. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, “Design of an input optic for solar UV measurements,” Internet Photochem. Photobiol. (1998), http://www.photobiology.com/UVR98/schreder/index.htm .

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

J. Schreder, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 2002).

D. Wardle, Experimental Studies Division Meteorological Service of Canada Downsview, Canada (personal communication, 1998).

W. Jordan, TB/L-M, OSRAM GmbH, Munich, Germany (personal communication, 2001).

P. Görts, “First lamp comparison PTB-DXW-NLR,” Laboratory of Radiation Research, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (2002).

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Laboratory Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers,” in Advances in Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiomtery, European Commission Air Pollution Research Report (European Commission, Paris, 1997) vol. 63.

World Health Organization, “Ultraviolet radiation,” in Environmental Health Criteria 160 (World Health Organization, New York, 1994).

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, “Ultraviolet radiation at the earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral instruments” in Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, WMO-GAW No. 125, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

German Institute of Standardization, DIN 5032 Teil 1, Deutsche Normen Series (Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Above, the angular response function of the global irradiance entrance optic of several Brewer spectrophotometers and a state-of-the-art shaped diffuser (B5503). Below, the deviations of the angular response functions relative to a cosine response for the same instruments (cosine error). The integral quantity f 2 is 15%, 5%, 7%, 4%, and 2% for Brewer 163, 066, 107, 119, and Bentham 5503, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the newly developed entrance optic for global irradiance measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of the angular response function of the new entrance optic relative to the desired cosine relation. The error bars represent the uncertainties expected from the laboratory measurement. These values also are tabulated in Table 1. The integral quantity f 2 in each of the four planes is 0° = 2.4%, 90° = 2.5%, 180° = 2.3%, and 270° = 2.4%. The mean of all four planes gives an f 2 of 2.4%, with an uncertainty of ±1%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Global solar irradiance measurements on 10–14 May 2002 in Ispra, Italy with Brewer spectrophotometer 163 and Bentham spectroradiometer B5503 with use of a shaped diffuser (B5503). Shown are the ratios of the global irradiance measurements between the two instruments at three wavelength bands, 310, 330, and 350 ± 2.5 nm. The daily mean ratios for the three wavelength bands are 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98 at 310, 330, and 350 nm, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Angular Response of the New Entrance Optic for Global Irradiance Measurements in Four Planesa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f2ε, φ=Yε, φY0°, φcos ε- 1100%.
f2=0°85°|f2ε, 0|sin 2εdε.

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