Abstract

We report the modeling results of an all-fiber gas detector that uses photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The relative sensitivity of the PCF as a function of the fiber parameters is calculated. Gas-diffusion dynamics that affect the sensor response time is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A practical PCF sensor aiming for high sensitivity gas detection is proposed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See www.crystalfiber.com .
  5. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).
  7. S. Seller, M. Zoboli, “Performance comparison of finite-element approaches for electromagnetic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1460–1465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 273–337.
  9. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 44–68, 160–202.
  10. C. L. Yaws, Handbook of Transport Property Data: Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusion Coefficients of Liquids and Gases (Gulf Publishing, Houston, Tex., 1995).
  11. E. L. Cussler, Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems (Cambridge University, New York, 1997), pp. 173–184.
  12. R. E. Cunningham, R. J. J. Williams, Diffusion in Gases and Porous Media (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 145–151, 243–246.
  13. K. Gyeong-il, P. In-shik, “Splicing losses between dissimilar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 690–703 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. S. Chiang, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (personal communication, 2003).
  15. B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Gyeong-il, P. In-shik, “Splicing losses between dissimilar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 690–703 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Seller, M. Zoboli, “Performance comparison of finite-element approaches for electromagnetic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Bennett, P. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (personal communication, 2003).

Clark, D. F.

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Crank, J.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 44–68, 160–202.

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Cunningham, R. E.

R. E. Cunningham, R. J. J. Williams, Diffusion in Gases and Porous Media (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 145–151, 243–246.

Cussler, E. L.

E. L. Cussler, Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems (Cambridge University, New York, 1997), pp. 173–184.

Demokan, M. S.

H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gyeong-il, K.

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoi, H. L.

H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

In-shik, P.

Jin, J.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 273–337.

Jin, W.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norris, J.

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seller, S.

Stentz, A. J.

Stewart, G.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Tandy, C.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. J. J.

R. E. Cunningham, R. J. J. Williams, Diffusion in Gases and Porous Media (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 145–151, 243–246.

Windeler, R. S.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yaws, C. L.

C. L. Yaws, Handbook of Transport Property Data: Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusion Coefficients of Liquids and Gases (Gulf Publishing, Houston, Tex., 1995).

Zoboli, M.

Electron. Lett.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hoi, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, “Sensitive, multipoint gas detection using TDM and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1191–1193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, R. S. Windeler, “Evanescent-wave gas sensing using microstructure fiber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 8–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fiber optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, W. Jin, B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near field,” Sens. Actuators B 38, 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

See www.crystalfiber.com .

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 273–337.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 44–68, 160–202.

C. L. Yaws, Handbook of Transport Property Data: Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusion Coefficients of Liquids and Gases (Gulf Publishing, Houston, Tex., 1995).

E. L. Cussler, Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems (Cambridge University, New York, 1997), pp. 173–184.

R. E. Cunningham, R. J. J. Williams, Diffusion in Gases and Porous Media (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 145–151, 243–246.

K. S. Chiang, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (personal communication, 2003).

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