Abstract

A six-channel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of UV and visible radiation has been developed. The characteristics of the instrument are described, including the spectral and the angular responses. Furthermore the calibration procedure is outlined. Combining information from several channels, one may determine the total ozone-column amount, various biological dose rates, a cloud transmission factor, and the effective cloud optical depth. The methods used to determine these parameters are presented, and the measured parameters are compared with similar ones obtained from other instruments. The total ozone as measured by the instrument agrees with measurements from a standard Brewer to -0.05% ± 2.04% over a two-year period. Two weeks of cloudless Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage dose rates agree with those from a Bentham double monochromator spectroradiometer to 0.99 ± 0.03.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. Brewer, “A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 106–108, 919–927 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Landelius, W. Josefsson, “Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795–4802 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).
  16. K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. De Backer, D. De Muer, “Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991, including zenith sky observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711–20719 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).
  21. A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, “All-weather ultraviolet solar spectra retrieved at a 0.5-Hz sampling rate,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6247–6252 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Leontyeva, K. Stamnes, “Estimations of cloud optical thickness from ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation in the Arctic,” J. Clim. 7, 566–578 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2002

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Landelius, W. Josefsson, “Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795–4802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, “All-weather ultraviolet solar spectra retrieved at a 0.5-Hz sampling rate,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6247–6252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Leontyeva, K. Stamnes, “Estimations of cloud optical thickness from ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation in the Arctic,” J. Clim. 7, 566–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. De Backer, D. De Muer, “Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991, including zenith sky observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711–20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1987

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

1973

A. W. Brewer, “A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 106–108, 919–927 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).

Bais, A. F.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnaba, F.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaubien, A. F.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D. S.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C. R.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, M.

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, “A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 106–108, 919–927 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).

Choi, D.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).

Dahlback, A.

A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielsen, T.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Backer, H.

H. De Backer, D. De Muer, “Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991, including zenith sky observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711–20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Mazière, M.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Muer, D.

H. De Backer, D. De Muer, “Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991, including zenith sky observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711–20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Eriksen, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. H.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G.-P.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gröbner, J.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, Z.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Josefsson, W.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Landelius, W. Josefsson, “Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795–4802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Junkermann, W.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazantzidis, A.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kift, R.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P. J.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kjeldstad, B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, “All-weather ultraviolet solar spectra retrieved at a 0.5-Hz sampling rate,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6247–6252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).

Koskela, T.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuik, F.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, J. C.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Landelius, T.

T. Landelius, W. Josefsson, “Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795–4802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leontyeva, E.

E. Leontyeva, K. Stamnes, “Estimations of cloud optical thickness from ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation in the Arctic,” J. Clim. 7, 566–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, K.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liberti, G. L.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, T.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Madronich, S.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Mestechnica, T.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Misslbeck, M.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moise, A.

G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, J. H.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J. P.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Redondas, A.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reinen, H.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reinsel, G. C.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, A.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schallhart, B.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31241–31254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Moise, “Measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance in tropical Austrialia,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8719–8730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “New entrance optics for solar spectral UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 923–930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Mass., 1986).

Simon, P. C.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slaper, H.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusser, J. R.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

E. Leontyeva, K. Stamnes, “Estimations of cloud optical thickness from ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation in the Arctic,” J. Clim. 7, 566–578 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svenøe, T.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W. K.

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Thiel, S.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Tiao, G. C.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Topaloglou, C.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
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J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

Zerefos, C. S.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

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Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. Dahlback, B. Mayer, “The effect of clouds and surface albedo on UV irradiances at a high latitude site,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1411–1414 (2000).
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J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493–2496 (1996).
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K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, C. Booth, T. Lucas, “Severalfold enhance-ments of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone hole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, G.-P. Gobbi, A. Kylling, R. Schmitt, S. Thiel, F. Barnaba, T. Danielsen, W. Junkermann, A. Kazantzidis, P. Kelly, R. Kift, G. L. Liberti, M. Misslbeck, B. Schallhart, J. Schreder, C. Topaloglou, “Measuring spectral actinic flux and irradiance: experimental results from the ADMIRA (actinic flux determination from measurements of irradiance).” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 19, 1049–1062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

J. C. Lambert, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, P. C. Simon, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, J. F. Gleason, “Investigation of pole-to-pole performances of spaceborne atmospheric chemistry sensors with the NDSC,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 176–193 (1999).
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E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, W. K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Landelius, W. Josefsson, “Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795–4802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenøe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12509–12525 (2001).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of the measured angular response to the ideal cosine response for each channel for a fixed azimuth angle. For isotropic incident radiation the irradiance is underestimated by 10.3%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of the effective response E eff Eq. (2), to the ideal signal E, Eq. (1), for 305 and 380 nm as a function of the solar zenith angle. Three different atmospheric situations are illustrated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative spectral response of the five UV channels of the NILU-UV instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Total ozone-column amount over Oslo, Norway as measured by the Brewer and the NILU-UV instruments. (b) Percentage difference between the ozone-column amount as measured by the Brewer and the NILU-UV instruments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CIE dose rate as measured by circles Bentham DTM300 spectroradiometer and, solid line, a NILU-UV. (b) Ratio of the NILU-UV to the Bentham CIE dose rate as a function of time. (c) +, same ratio as in (b) but shown as a function of the solar zenith angle; ■, ratios obtained when NILU-UV data are not cosine corrected.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Solid curve, CIE dose rate for 10 July, 2001, Kjeller, Norway, a day with changing cloudiness together with CLT (broken curves), the cloud transmission factor.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eλ=ϕθ Iλ, θ, ϕcos θ sin θ dθ dϕ.
Eeffλ=ϕθ Iλ, θ, ϕYθ, ϕsin θ dθ dϕ.
Ci=0 RiλEλdλ.
Riλ=kiRiλ.
ki=Ci0 RiλEλdλ=Ciλ=0 RiλEλΔλ.
Nθ0, Ω=Eiθ0, ΩEjθ0, Ω
dDdt=0 AλEλdλ=λ=0 AλEλΔλ,
i=1M aiCi=λ=0 AλEλΔλ,
fθ0=Eeffθ0Eθ0.
fθ0=fθ0/fθ0cal.
CLT=Eimeasθ0Eiclearθ0×100%,

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