Abstract

We address the primary limitation of the bandwidth to satisfy the demands for address transactions in future cache-coherent symmetric multiprocessors (SMPs). It is widely known that the bus speed and the coherence overhead limit the snoop/address bandwidth needed to broadcast address transactions to all processors. As a solution, we propose a scalable address subnetwork called symmetric multiprocessor network (SYMNET) in which address requests and snoop responses of SMPs are implemented optically. SYMNET not only has the ability to pipeline address requests, but also multiple address requests from different processors can propagate through the address subnetwork simultaneously. This is in contrast with all electrical bus-based SMPs, where only a single request is broadcast on the physical address bus at any given point in time. The simultaneous propagation of multiple address requests in SYMNET increases the available address bandwidth and lowers the latency of the network, but the preservation of cache coherence can no longer be maintained with the usual fast snooping protocols. A modified snooping cache-coherence protocol, coherence in SYMNET (COSYM) is introduced to solve the coherence problem. We evaluated SYMNET with a subset of Splash-2 benchmarks and compared it with the electrical bus-based MOESI (modified, owned, exclusive, shared, invalid) protocol. Our simulation studies have shown a 5–66% improvement in execution time for COSYM as compared with MOESI for various applications. Simulations have also shown that the average latency for a transaction to complete by use of COSYM protocol was 5–78% better than the MOESI protocol. SYMNET can scale up to hundreds of processors while still using fast snooping-based cache-coherence protocols, and additional performance gains may be attained with further improvement in optical device technology.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001

2000

J. H. Collet, D. Litaize, J. V. Campenhut, C. Jesshope, M. Desmulliez, H. Thienpont, J. Goodman, A. Louri, “Architectural approaches to the role of optics in mono and multiprocessor machines,” Appl. Opt. 39, 671–682 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, C. Amano, “Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1487–1492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: Photonic integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlesworth, “Starfire: Extending the SMP envelope,” IEEE Micro. 18, 39–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. J. J. Yeh, J. S. Smith, “Integration of GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser on Si by substrate removal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1466–1468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Bogineni, P. W. Dowd, “A collisionless multiple access protocol for wavelength division multiplexed star-coupled configuration: Architecture and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1688–1699 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, N.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Ailamaki, A.

M. M. Martin, D. J. Sorin, A. Ailamaki, A. R. Alameldeen, R. M. Dickson, C. J. Mauer, M. Plakal, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, “Timestamp snooping: An approach for extending SMPs,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, ACM, Cambridge, Mass., November13–15, 25–36 (2000).

Alameldeen, A. R.

M. M. Martin, D. J. Sorin, A. Ailamaki, A. R. Alameldeen, R. M. Dickson, C. J. Mauer, M. Plakal, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, “Timestamp snooping: An approach for extending SMPs,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, ACM, Cambridge, Mass., November13–15, 25–36 (2000).

Amano, C.

T. Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, C. Amano, “Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1487–1492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bidnurkar, M.

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. Bidnurkar, R. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. F. Sakr, J. P. Teza, “Optoelectronic buses for high-performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE, 82, 1701–1710 (1994).

Bogineni, K.

K. Bogineni, P. W. Dowd, “A collisionless multiple access protocol for wavelength division multiplexed star-coupled configuration: Architecture and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1688–1699 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J. P.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. Stack, M. Kader-Kallen, J. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. Ozgus, S. Patra, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (point)-optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 308–315 (1996).

Broniarczyk, D.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Burns, D.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campenhut, J. V.

Cerauskis, F.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Chandramani, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Charlesworth, A.

A. Charlesworth, “Starfire: Extending the SMP envelope,” IEEE Micro. 18, 39–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlesworth, “The sun Fireplane SMP interconnect in the Sunfire 3800–6800,” in Hot Interconnects 9, IEEE Comput. Society, Los Alamitus, Calif., 37–42 (2001) www.hotl.org .

Chen, Y. J.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Chiarulli, D. M.

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. Bidnurkar, R. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. F. Sakr, J. P. Teza, “Optoelectronic buses for high-performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE, 82, 1701–1710 (1994).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Collet, J. H.

Condon, A. E.

D. J. Sorin, M. Plakal, A. E. Condon, M. D. Hill, M. M. Martin, D. A. Wood, “Specifying and verifying a broadcast and a multicast snooping cache coherence protocol,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 13 (2002).

Culler, D. E.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Saini, Y. Hu, Z. Dilli, R. Grover, M. Dagenais, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, H. Shen, W. Zhou, J. Pamulapati, “Integrated 1 × 2 loss-less Y-junction splitter on a passive active resonant coupler platform,” in Conference Lasers and Electro-Optics423–424 (2000).

Desmulliez, M.

Dickson, R. M.

M. M. Martin, D. J. Sorin, A. Ailamaki, A. R. Alameldeen, R. M. Dickson, C. J. Mauer, M. Plakal, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, “Timestamp snooping: An approach for extending SMPs,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, ACM, Cambridge, Mass., November13–15, 25–36 (2000).

Dilli, Z.

S. S. Saini, Y. Hu, Z. Dilli, R. Grover, M. Dagenais, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, H. Shen, W. Zhou, J. Pamulapati, “Integrated 1 × 2 loss-less Y-junction splitter on a passive active resonant coupler platform,” in Conference Lasers and Electro-Optics423–424 (2000).

Ditmore, R.

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. Bidnurkar, R. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. F. Sakr, J. P. Teza, “Optoelectronic buses for high-performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE, 82, 1701–1710 (1994).

Doblar, D.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Dowd, P.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, P. W.

K. Bogineni, P. W. Dowd, “A collisionless multiple access protocol for wavelength division multiplexed star-coupled configuration: Architecture and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1688–1699 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, M.

F. Pong, M. Dubois, K. Lee, “Design and performance of SMPs with asynchronous caches,” Tech. Rep. HPL-1999-149, Hewlett Packard, HP Laboratories, Palo Alto, Calif. (1999).

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. Stack, M. Kader-Kallen, J. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. Ozgus, S. Patra, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (point)-optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 308–315 (1996).

Fosth, S.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Geib, K. M.

Goodman, J.

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: Photonic integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gravenstreter, G.

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. Bidnurkar, R. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. F. Sakr, J. P. Teza, “Optoelectronic buses for high-performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE, 82, 1701–1710 (1994).

Grover, R.

S. S. Saini, Y. Hu, Z. Dilli, R. Grover, M. Dagenais, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, H. Shen, W. Zhou, J. Pamulapati, “Integrated 1 × 2 loss-less Y-junction splitter on a passive active resonant coupler platform,” in Conference Lasers and Electro-Optics423–424 (2000).

Guo, Z.

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. Bidnurkar, R. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. F. Sakr, J. P. Teza, “Optoelectronic buses for high-performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE, 82, 1701–1710 (1994).

Gupta, A.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

C. S. Woo, M. Ohara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The splash-2 programs: Characterization and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ACM, ISCA ’95, Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy, 24–37 (1995).

Ha, J.-H.

J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “The speed cache coherence for an optical multiaccess interconnect architecture,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, IEEE, San Antonio, Tex.98–107 (1995).

Hady, F.

P. Dowd, J. Perreault, J. Chu, D. C. Hoffmeister, R. Minnich, D. Burns, F. Hady, Y. J. Chen, M. Dagenais, “Lightning network and systems architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1371–1387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagersten, E.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Harvey, K.

A. Singhal, D. Broniarczyk, F. Cerauskis, J. Price, L. Yuan, C. Cheng, D. Doblar, S. Fosth, N. Agarwal, K. Harvey, E. Hagersten, B. Liencres, “Gigaplane: A high performance bus for large SMPs,” in Proceedings Hot Interconnects 4, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 97–112 (1996) www.hotl.org .

Hayes, E. M.

Hennesey, J. L.

D. A. Patterson, J. L. Hennesey, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufman, Los Altos, Calif., 1996).

Hennessy, W. A.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. Stack, M. Kader-Kallen, J. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. Ozgus, S. Patra, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (point)-optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 308–315 (1996).

Hikita, M.

T. Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, C. Amano, “Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1487–1492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. D.

D. J. Sorin, M. Plakal, A. E. Condon, M. D. Hill, M. M. Martin, D. A. Wood, “Specifying and verifying a broadcast and a multicast snooping cache coherence protocol,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 13 (2002).

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M. M. Martin, D. J. Sorin, A. Ailamaki, A. R. Alameldeen, R. M. Dickson, C. J. Mauer, M. Plakal, M. D. Hill, D. A. Wood, “Timestamp snooping: An approach for extending SMPs,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, ACM, Cambridge, Mass., November13–15, 25–36 (2000).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, “16 × 16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 12, 1073–1075 (2000).
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S. S. Saini, Y. Hu, Z. Dilli, R. Grover, M. Dagenais, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, H. Shen, W. Zhou, J. Pamulapati, “Integrated 1 × 2 loss-less Y-junction splitter on a passive active resonant coupler platform,” in Conference Lasers and Electro-Optics423–424 (2000).

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T. Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, C. Amano, “Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1487–1492 (2000).
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D. J. Sorin, M. Plakal, A. E. Condon, M. D. Hill, M. M. Martin, D. A. Wood, “Specifying and verifying a broadcast and a multicast snooping cache coherence protocol,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 13 (2002).

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M. M. K. Martin, D. J. Sorin, Mark D. Hill, David A. Wood, “Bandwidth adaptive snooping,” in 8th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 224–235 (2002).

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