Abstract

The control of line-edge roughness (LER) of features printed in photoresist poses significant challenges to next-generation lithography techniques such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Achieving adequately low LER levels will require accurate resist characterization as well as the ability to separate resist effects from other potential contributors to LER. One significant potential contributor is LER on the mask. Here we explicitly study the mask to resist LER coupling using both analytical and computer-simulation methods. We present what is to our knowledge a new imaging transfer function referred to as the LER transfer function (LTF), which fundamentally differs from both the conventional modulation transfer function and the optical transfer function. Moreover, we present experimental results demonstrating the impact of current EUV masks on projection-lithography-based LER experiments.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

2002 (3)

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Ballard, W.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Batson, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benschop, J.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Berger, K.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Blaedel, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

Bozman, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, R.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cardinale, G.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, J.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

Chapman, H. N.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, S.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Folk, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Gaughan, R.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geyl, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Goldberg, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

Goldsmith, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996) Chap. 6, pp. 126–165.

Gullikson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, S.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Hada, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hale, L.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanzen, R.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Harned, N.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Harteneck, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Henderson, C.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoef, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Høghøj, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Hudyma, R.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irie, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, K.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Kinoshita, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kishimura, S.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanoff, L.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Komano, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Kürz, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Lee, S.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leung, A.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Li, W.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mackevich, J.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

Mickan, U.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Mirkarimi, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyafuji, A.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mori, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

O’Connell, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, K.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okoroanyanwu, U.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panning, E.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Rao, V.

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Replogle, W.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Salmassi, F.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, D.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shirayone, S.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shumway, M.

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H.

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Soufli, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Spiller, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wronosky, J.

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Yan, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

Yano, E.

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV Lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station Using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. Brainard, C. Henderson, J. Cobb, V. Rao, J. Mackevich, U. Okoroanyanwu, S. Gunn, J. Chambers, S. Connolly, “Comparison of the lithographic properties of positive resists upon exposure to deep- and extreme-ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3384–3389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

M. Shumway, S. Lee, C. Cho, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10× Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 357–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, H. Solak, F. Cerrina, “EUV nanolithography: sub-50 nm L/S,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 794–798 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, A. Miyafuji, S. Irie, S. Shirayone, S. Mori, E. Yano, H. Hada, K. Ohmori, H. Komano, “Lithographic performance and optimization of chemically amplified single-layer resists for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 600–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with the EUV 10× Microstepper,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 1–10 (2002).

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tichenor, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. Lee, H. Chapman, W. Replogle, K. Berger, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, L. Klebanoff, J. Wronosky, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, W. Ballard, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. Taylor, J. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufli, G. Sommargren, D. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, J. Bjorkholm, C. Gwyn, “Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 639–645 (2001).

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” to be published, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 20, 2834–2839 (2002).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996) Chap. 6, pp. 126–165.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2001 Edition, ( http://public.itrs.net/ ).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LTF for various σ values as a function of the normalized spatial frequency (normalized to the coherent cutoff frequency).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) LTF simulation input mask with a white LER spectrum and 100-nm features, (b) computer-calculated aerial assuming the 0.1-NA engineering test stand Set-2 optic including the EUV-measured wavefront aberrations and assuming partially coherent illumination (σ = 0.7).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LER PSDs for the input mask (upper trace) and output aerial image (lower trace). Average of calculations from four independent realizations of the process described in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LTF derived by taking the square root of the aerial-image LER PSD divided by the white-noise mask PSD from Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LTF (a) shows an example probe mask, (b) its resulting aerial image, (c) generated by calculating the system response to a series of single-frequency LER probes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Direct comparison of the two LTF modeling methods and the analytical LTF calculation. The analytical LTF is depicted by the solid curve, the white-noise calculated LTF by the open diamonds and the single-frequency-probe calculated LTF by the open squares. The small differences between the modeling methods and the analytical method can be attributed to the incorporation of the wavefront error in the modeling methods causing the modulation to drop slightly relative to the diffraction-limited case.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LER PSD calculated from an EUV mask used in recent printing experiments. The LER PSD is measured from 100-nm coded features on the mask. The peak at the 3-nm period is a scanning electron microscope artifact and contributes a negligible amount of energy to the LER, which in this case is 2.6 nm in image-plane coordinates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mask contribution to the aerial-image-LER (LTF modified mask), determined by multiplying the mask LER PSD by the square of the LTF along with resist-image LER PSDs for two different EUV resists. The 22 mJ/cm2 sensitivity resist yielded an LER of approximately 3.6 nm, while the 2.0 mJ/cm2 sensitivity resist yielded an LER of approximately 6.4 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Direct comparison of LTF and MTF. What is referred to here as the MTF is actually the square wave transfer function under partially coherent illumination, where the illumination conditions are identical to those described in Fig. 6 with respect to the LTF modeling.

Equations (16)

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Ix= d2x1d2x2Px-x1P*x-x2Ox1O*x2Cx1, x2.
Px= d2βθNAk2-β2expiβ · x+iwβ,
θX=1 for X>00 for X<0.
Cx1, x2= d2sθσNAk2-β2×expis · x1-x2,
Ix= d2sθσNAk2-β2× d2β expiβ · xθNAk2-β2Õβ-s2,
Õβ= d2x exp-iβ · xOx.
Ix=T=threshold value.
δx=δIxIx|Ix|2x=xedge.
δyx=δIx, yyIx, yy=0=δIx, 0Ix, 0Ix, yyIx, yy=0.
δyx=δIx, 0TILS
Õβ=-2πiβy-iε δβx-2πh˜β,
h˜β= dx exp-iβxxhx
1βy-iε=iπδβy+PP1βy,
 d2β expiβxxθNAk2-β2Õβ-s=expisxx×2π2-2πi lnNAk2-sx2-syNAk2-sx2+sy-4π -NAk+NAk dβx expiβxxh˜βx-sxNAk2-βx2.
δyx=1TILS  dβ expiβxh˜β×-32π3  dsθσNAk2-s2×θNAk2-β+s2×σNAk2-s2NAk2-β+s2NTILS  dβ expiβxh˜βLTFβ.
LTFβ¯= ds¯Reσ2-s¯2Re1-s¯-β¯2 ds¯Reσ2-s¯2Re1-s¯2,

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