Abstract

We describe an experimental setup for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography that uses a seven-channel light guide to transmit scattered light to a streak camera. This setup permits the simultaneous measurement of the time profiles of photons reemitted at different boundary sites of the objects studied. The instrument, its main specifications, and detector-specific data analysis before image reconstruction are described. The instrumentation was tested with phantoms simulating biological tissue, and the absorption and reduced scattering images that were obtained are discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Hebden, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 372–380 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time of flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Mitic, J. Kölzer, J. Otto, E. Plies, G. Sölkner, W. Zinth, “Time-gated transillumination of biological tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6699–6710 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. E. W. Schmidt, “Development of a time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College, London, 1999).
  8. F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  13. S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from full three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. T. Herman, Image Reconstruction from Projections: The Fundamentals of Algorithm of Computerized Tomography (Academic, New York, 1980).
  18. M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699–1717 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Hamamatsu Photonics KK, 314-5 Shimokanzo, Toyooka-mura, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 438-0193 Japan (R4110U 8-anode MCP-PMT specifications, 2001).

2003

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from full three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1993

J. C. Hebden, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 372–380 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time of flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time of flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, B.

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deghani, H.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eda, H.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fry, M. E.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, F.

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from full three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 372–380 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Herman, G. T.

G. T. Herman, Image Reconstruction from Projections: The Fundamentals of Algorithm of Computerized Tomography (Academic, New York, 1980).

Hillman, E. M. C.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Ito, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Kölzer, J.

Ma, X.

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitic, G.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oda, I.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otto, J.

Plies, E.

Poulet, P.

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from full three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sassaroli, A.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. E. W.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, “Development of a time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College, London, 1999).

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M. S.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sölkner, G.

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time of flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summ, P.

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

Takada, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torregrossa, M.

C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsunazawa, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uhring, W.

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wada, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

Yamada, Y.

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from full three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zint, C. V.

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

Appl. Opt.

Inverse Probl.

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine. I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. R. Arridge, M. S. Schweiger, H. Deghani, D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and data types extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3415–3427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, X. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Uhring, C. V. Zint, P. Summ, Y. Hu, B. Cunin, “Very high long-term stability synchroscan streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2646–2653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time of flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

F. E. W. Schmidt, “Development of a time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College, London, 1999).

G. T. Herman, Image Reconstruction from Projections: The Fundamentals of Algorithm of Computerized Tomography (Academic, New York, 1980).

C. V. Zint, F. Gao, M. Torregrossa, P. Poulet, “Near-infrared optical tomography of scattering cylindrical phantoms using time-resolved detection,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 514–521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamamatsu Photonics KK, 314-5 Shimokanzo, Toyooka-mura, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 438-0193 Japan (R4110U 8-anode MCP-PMT specifications, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the time-resolved optical tomography system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid phantom mounted in the apparatus equipped with a seven-arm light guide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of the seven time-resolved reemission profiles recorded with the fibers positioned from 108° to 216° a distance 18° apart. Horizontal scale, a 3500-ps sweep range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Seven temporal profiles obtained by integration over the corresponding lines of the CCD matrix. Axes are expressed as numbers of pixels. The 740 pixels of the horizontal scale correspond to 3500 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and theoretical temporal definition by pixel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SNR at 750 and 800 nm as a function of the number of incident photons: experimental results and adjusted curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal profiles integrated in each fiber detection area at a height of 28 pixels when only the first fiber is mounted on the holder.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of correction on a measured temporal signal: (a) measured signal, (b) signal after nonlinearity corrections, and (c) signal after correct positioning of the time origin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal profiles measured and adjusted with a 2D FEM model.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Target object images and images reconstructed from simulated data and from measured data.

Equations (3)

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tp= 1ωsin-1p-p0A.
δtpδp=Aω1-p-p0A21/2-1.
Mv-Fvpk=Jvpkδpk, pk+1=pk+δpk,

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