Abstract

In the standard M-line method for the characterization of graded-index films, an analytical curve is fitted to the waveguide mode measurements and extrapolated to provide the refractive index in the zero-depth limit. Here we review our polarimetric approach to a direct near-surface measurement, which complements the M-line method. Also, we present its new and more straightforward version, which is applicable to existing samples and does not require masking before ion exchange.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).
  3. M. B. Pereira, F. Horowitz, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1949), pp. 1–120.
  7. M. J. Hacskaylo, “Determination of the refractive index of thin dielectric films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 198–203 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hacke, “Brewsterwinkel-Mikroskopie zur Untersuchung der Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonaten an Modell-Monofilmen an der Grenzfläche Wasser/Luft,” Ph.D. thesis (Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2001), pp. 1–59.
  9. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision measurements in thin film optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–90.
  10. M. B. Pereira, “Optical metrology of surfaces and dielectric films, with extension to inhomogeneous coating microstructures,” M.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998; in Portuguese), pp. 1–97.
  11. T. G. Giallorenzi, E. J. West, R. Kirk, R. Ginhter, R. A. Andrews, “Optical waveguides formed by thermal migration of ions in glass,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1240–1245 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. B. Pereira, F. Horowitz, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1949), pp. 1–120.

Andrews, R. A.

Behar, M.

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision measurements in thin film optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–90.

Bennett, J. M.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision measurements in thin film optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–90.

Bräuer, A.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Dannberg, P.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Ginhter, R.

Gomez Reino, C.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Gonella, F.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Hacke, S.

S. Hacke, “Brewsterwinkel-Mikroskopie zur Untersuchung der Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonaten an Modell-Monofilmen an der Grenzfläche Wasser/Luft,” Ph.D. thesis (Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2001), pp. 1–59.

Hacskaylo, M. J.

Horowitz, F.

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pereira, F. Horowitz, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, R.

Liñares, J.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mazzi, G.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Noutsious, P.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Pelli, S.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, M. B.

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pereira, F. Horowitz, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pereira, “Optical metrology of surfaces and dielectric films, with extension to inhomogeneous coating microstructures,” M.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998; in Portuguese), pp. 1–97.

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Rimet, R.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Scaglione, A.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Schanen, I.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

West, E. J.

Yip, G.-L.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. B. Pereira, F. Horowitz, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, “Analysis of Ag+-exchanged glass coatings in the near-surface region,” Opt. Commun. 182, 129–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, M. Behar, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, “Characterization of the near-surface region in ion-exchange glass waveguides,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices: Integrated Optics Devices V, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1949), pp. 1–120.

S. Hacke, “Brewsterwinkel-Mikroskopie zur Untersuchung der Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonaten an Modell-Monofilmen an der Grenzfläche Wasser/Luft,” Ph.D. thesis (Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2001), pp. 1–59.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision measurements in thin film optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–90.

M. B. Pereira, “Optical metrology of surfaces and dielectric films, with extension to inhomogeneous coating microstructures,” M.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998; in Portuguese), pp. 1–97.

S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, A. Scaglione, G.-L. Yip, P. Noutsious, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, J. Liñares, C. Gomez Reino, G. Mazzi, F. Gonella, R. Rimet, I. Schanen, “Testing of Optical waveguides (TOW) cooperative project: preliminary results of the characterization of k-exchanged waveguides,” in Linear and Nonlinear Integrated Optics, G. C. Righini, D. Yevick, eds., Proc. SPIE2212, 126–131 (1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of our two DNS measurement schemes for inhomogeneous films: (a) generalized Abelès-Hacskaylo and (b) generalized Brewster-Pfund, both with an absorbing layer to extinguish undesired reflections. This extinction is verified when the weaker backreflectance beam, shifted from the front reflectance beam by propagation in the millimeter-thick substrate, disappears. The two methods provide practically the same results, indicating the consistency of the DNS approach.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. θ and ϕ, respectively the orientation of the analyzer and the angle of incidence, are directly obtained from the goniometer readings with a precision of 0.01 degree of arc. The other angle, α, refers to the polarizer transmission axis, which deviates slightly from the plane of incidence. BS, beam splitter; Ref., reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Data and interpolation curves measured by the DNS-B method for Ag-exchanged and K-exchanged samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive-index values obtained by M-line (five waveguide modes) and by DNS-B (film and bare glass surfaces) measurement techniques. Energy-dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) values (five scans with 700 points each, 20-keV electron acceleration voltage) are scaled to permit a Gaussian fit with small deviations from all M-line and DNS-B experimental values. This fit was set to overlap the index profile in the high depth region where the Ag concentration has its lowest values.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Brewster Angles from Fig. 3, and Corresponding Near-Surface Film Refractive Indices, As Obtained by the DNS-B Methoda

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