Abstract

A diaphragm-based interferometric fiber optic sensor that uses a low-coherence light source was designed and tested for on-line detection of the acoustic waves generated by partial discharges inside high-voltage power transformers. The sensor uses a fused-silica diaphragm and a single-mode optical fiber encapsulated in a fused-silica glass tube to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is interrogated by low-coherence light. Test results indicate that these fiber optic acoustic sensors are capable of faithfully detecting acoustic signals propagating inside transformer oil with high sensitivity and wide bandwidth.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. A. Pledger, S. C. Pyke, “Gas monitor update: review of progress in the development of a microelectronic in-situ transformer fault gas analyzer,” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).
  3. J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).
  4. L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIII. Acoustic partial discharge detection—fundamental considerations,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(4), 25–31 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIV. Acoustic partial discharge detection—practical application,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(5), 34–43 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Howells, E. T. Norton, “Location of partial discharge sites in on-line transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-100, 158–161 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Eleftherion, “Partial discharge. XXI. Acoustic emission-based PD source location in transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 11, 22–26 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Culshaw, “Basic concepts of optical fiber sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components, J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1988), Chap. 2.
  10. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Overview of Mach-Zehnder sensor technology and applications,” in Selected Papers on Fiber Optic Sensors, R. Willsch, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. MS 108 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), pp. 216–234.
  12. M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).
  13. J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).
  16. Z. Zhao, M. MacAlpine, M. Süleyman Demokan, “The directionality of an optical fiber high-frequency acoustic sensor for partial discharge detection and location,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 795–805 (2000).
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  17. R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).
  19. A. Wang, M. S. Miller, A. J. Plante, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical fiber sensors for measurement of microdisplacement, strain and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2595–2601 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).
  21. J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).
  23. Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1980), pp. 360–367.
  25. M. Schmidt, N. Fürstenau, “Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors with three-wavelength digital phase demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 599–601 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986), pp. 144–150.
  28. M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 12.
  29. M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 17.

2001 (1)

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

P. M. Eleftherion, “Partial discharge. XXI. Acoustic emission-based PD source location in transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 11, 22–26 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIII. Acoustic partial discharge detection—fundamental considerations,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(4), 25–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIV. Acoustic partial discharge detection—practical application,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(5), 34–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. Howells, E. T. Norton, “Location of partial discharge sites in on-line transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-100, 158–161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, J. W.

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Afromowitz, M. A.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amemiya, T.

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1980), pp. 360–367.

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carome, E.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D.

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Claus, R. O.

A. Wang, M. S. Miller, A. J. Plante, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical fiber sensors for measurement of microdisplacement, strain and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2595–2601 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, “Basic concepts of optical fiber sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components, J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1988), Chap. 2.

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Overview of Mach-Zehnder sensor technology and applications,” in Selected Papers on Fiber Optic Sensors, R. Willsch, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. MS 108 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), pp. 216–234.

Dardy, H. D.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. Süleyman

Deng, J.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Di Giovanni, M.

M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 12.

M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 17.

Diamond, A. E.

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

ElBadaly, H. A.

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Eleftherion, P. M.

P. M. Eleftherion, “Partial discharge. XXI. Acoustic emission-based PD source location in transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 11, 22–26 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fogg, B. R.

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

Furstenau, N.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fürstenau, N.

Goetze, W.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, M. F.

A. Wang, M. S. Miller, A. J. Plante, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical fiber sensors for measurement of microdisplacement, strain and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2595–2601 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).

Hartl, J. C.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmig, C.

J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).

Honda, M.

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horack, H.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Howells, E.

E. Howells, E. T. Norton, “Location of partial discharge sites in on-line transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-100, 158–161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kamba, M.

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, H.

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Overview of Mach-Zehnder sensor technology and applications,” in Selected Papers on Fiber Optic Sensors, R. Willsch, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. MS 108 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), pp. 216–234.

Kikkawa, M.

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kozikowski, C.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

Liu, Y.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lundgaard, L. E.

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIII. Acoustic partial discharge detection—fundamental considerations,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(4), 25–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIV. Acoustic partial discharge detection—practical application,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(5), 34–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacAlpine, M.

May, R.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Merte, R.

J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).

Mettler, S. C.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986), pp. 144–150.

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986), pp. 144–150.

Miller, M. S.

Mitchell, G. L.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlcak, R.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

Murphy, K.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

Murphy, K. A.

A. Wang, M. S. Miller, A. J. Plante, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical fiber sensors for measurement of microdisplacement, strain and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2595–2601 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

Ning, Y. N.

Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norton, E. T.

E. Howells, E. T. Norton, “Location of partial discharge sites in on-line transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-100, 158–161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peier, D.

J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).

Plante, A. J.

Pledger, W. A.

W. A. Pledger, S. C. Pyke, “Gas monitor update: review of progress in the development of a microelectronic in-situ transformer fault gas analyzer,” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Pulliam, W.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

Pyke, S. C.

W. A. Pledger, S. C. Pyke, “Gas monitor update: review of progress in the development of a microelectronic in-situ transformer fault gas analyzer,” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Russler, P.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

Saaski, E.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

M. Schmidt, N. Fürstenau, “Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors with three-wavelength digital phase demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 599–601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slemon, C. S.

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

Suganuma, K.

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Teunissen, J.

J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).

Tran, T. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, M. S. Miller, A. J. Plante, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical fiber sensors for measurement of microdisplacement, strain and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2595–2601 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).

Wang, K. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, I. A.

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986), pp. 144–150.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1980), pp. 360–367.

Wolthuis, R. A.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).

Zhao, W.

J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).

Zhao, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor systems for airport ground traffic monitoring,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. (3)

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIII. Acoustic partial discharge detection—fundamental considerations,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(4), 25–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Lundgaard, “Partial discharge. XIV. Acoustic partial discharge detection—practical application,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 8(5), 34–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Eleftherion, “Partial discharge. XXI. Acoustic emission-based PD source location in transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 11, 22–26 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. (2)

H. Kawada, M. Honda, T. Inoue, T. Amemiya, “Partial discharge automatic monitor for oil-filled power transformer,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-103, 422–428 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Howells, E. T. Norton, “Location of partial discharge sites in on-line transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-100, 158–161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. (1)

Y. Inoue, K. Suganuma, M. Kamba, M. Kikkawa, “Development of oil-dissolved hydrogen gas detector for diagnosis of transformers,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. Carome, “Fiber optic hydrophone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302–1304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Smart Mater. Struct. (2)

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, “Extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurement from -200 to 900 °C,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatia, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection and location in composites and metal specimens,” J. Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Deng, H. Xiao, W. Huo, M. Luo, R. May, A. Wang, Y. Liu, “Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 305–311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

Y. N. Ning, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Fiber-optic interferometric systems using low-coherence light sources,” Sens. Actuators A 30, 181–192 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1980), pp. 360–367.

W. Pulliam, P. Russler, R. Mlcak, K. Murphy, C. Kozikowski, “Micromachined, SiC fiber optic pressure sensors for high temperature aerospace applications,” in Industrial Sensing Systems, A. Wang, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE4202, 21–30 (2000).

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Overview of Mach-Zehnder sensor technology and applications,” in Selected Papers on Fiber Optic Sensors, R. Willsch, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. MS 108 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), pp. 216–234.

M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, B. R. Fogg, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 262–269 (1992).

J. Teunissen, C. Helmig, R. Merte, D. Peier, “Fiber optical on-line monitoring for high-voltage transformers,” in SPIE International Symposium on Environmental and Industrial Sensing: Fiber Optic Sensor Technology II, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, M. Saad, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE4204, 198–205 (2001).

J. Wang, W. Zhao, H. Xiao, A. Wang, “Self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based optical fiber sensors,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 20–26 (1998).

W. A. Pledger, S. C. Pyke, “Gas monitor update: review of progress in the development of a microelectronic in-situ transformer fault gas analyzer,” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

J. W. Abbott, D. Chu, A. E. Diamond, H. A. ElBadaly, C. S. Slemon, “Development of an automated transformer oil monitor (ATOM),” in EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference (Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1994).

B. Culshaw, “Basic concepts of optical fiber sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components, J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1988), Chap. 2.

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, “Detection of acoustic emission location using optical fiber sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 282–290 (1994).

C. M. Miller, S. C. Mettler, I. A. White, Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986), pp. 144–150.

M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 12.

M. Di Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), Chap. 17.

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