Abstract

Accurate and noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties can be used for biomedical diagnostics and monitoring of tissue analytes. Noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties (total attenuation and scattering coefficients, optical thickness, etc.) can be performed with the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. However, speckle noise substantially deteriorates the accuracy of the measurements with this technique. We studied suppression of speckle noise for accurate measurement of backscattering signal and scattering coefficient with the OCT technique. Our results demonstrate that the precision of measurement of backscattering signals with the OCT technique can be 0.2% for homogeneously scattering media and 0.7% for skin, if spatial averaging of speckle noise is applied. This averaging allows us to achieve the precision of tissue scattering coefficient measurements of approximately ±0.8%. This precision can be further improved by a factor of 2–3, upon optimization of OCT operating parameters.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001

2000

J. Rogowska, M. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Schmitt, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bruulsema, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, L. Heinemann, M. Berger, T. Koschinsky, J. Sandahl-Christiansen, H. Orskov, M. Essenpreis, G. Schmelzeisen-Redeker, D. Böcker, “Correlation between blood glucose concentration in diabetics and noninvasively measured tissue optical scattering coefficient,” Opt. Lett. 22, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, R. F. Bonner, “Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by low-coherence reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6032–6042 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976

April, G.

Arsenault, H. H.

Beach, N. M.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, M.

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (WCB McGraw-Hill, USA, 1992).

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bocker, D.

Böcker, D.

Bonner, R.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, A. Gandjbakhche, R. Bonner, “Optical characterization of dense tissues using low-coherence interferometry,” in Holography, Interferometry, and Optical Pattern Recognition in Biomedicine III, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE1889, 197–211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M.

J. Rogowska, M. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bruulsema, J. T.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 26, 992–994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

Fantini, S.

Farrell, T. J.

Feldchtein, F. I.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gandjbakhche, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, A. Gandjbakhche, R. Bonner, “Optical characterization of dense tissues using low-coherence interferometry,” in Holography, Interferometry, and Optical Pattern Recognition in Biomedicine III, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE1889, 197–211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, G. V.

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N. D.

Goodman, J. W.

Gratton, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, J. E.

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, L.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iksanov, R. R.

Izatt, J. A.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kholodnykh, A. I.

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

King, M. A.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knuttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, R. F. Bonner, “Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by low-coherence reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6032–6042 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, A. Gandjbakhche, R. Bonner, “Optical characterization of dense tissues using low-coherence interferometry,” in Holography, Interferometry, and Optical Pattern Recognition in Biomedicine III, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE1889, 197–211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, M.

Koschinsky, T.

Kulkarni, M. D.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R. V.

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 26, 992–994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larina, I. V.

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maier, J. M.

Moores, M. D.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, “Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 26, 992–994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orskov, H.

Ourutina, M. N.

Owen, G. M.

Patterson, M. S.

Petrova, I. Y.

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (WCB McGraw-Hill, USA, 1992).

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska, M. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roper, S. N.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandahl-Christiansen, J.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schmelzeisen-Redeker, G.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, R. F. Bonner, “Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by low-coherence reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6032–6042 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, A. Gandjbakhche, R. Bonner, “Optical characterization of dense tissues using low-coherence interferometry,” in Holography, Interferometry, and Optical Pattern Recognition in Biomedicine III, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE1889, 197–211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A. M.

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. R. Iksanov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, M. N. Ourutina, J. A. Warren, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity,” Opt. Express 3, 239–250 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Walker, S. A.

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warren, J. A.

Weissman, N. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weyman, A. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

Willis, J.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dermatology

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heart

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound,” Heart 77, 397–403 (1997).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

J. Rogowska, M. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Acad. Derm.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Derm. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. M. Schmitt, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

S. N. Roper, M. D. Moores, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. M. Beach, M. A. King, V. M. Gelikonov, A. M. Sergeev, D. H. Reitze, “In vivo detection of experimentally induced cortical dysgenesis in the adult rat neocortex using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 80, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Optimization of low coherence interferometry for quantitative analysis of tissue optical properties,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring II, A. V. Priezzhev, G. L. Coté, eds., Proc. SPIE4624, 36–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, A. Gandjbakhche, R. Bonner, “Optical characterization of dense tissues using low-coherence interferometry,” in Holography, Interferometry, and Optical Pattern Recognition in Biomedicine III, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE1889, 197–211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd ed. (WCB McGraw-Hill, USA, 1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the OCT system used in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal of reflection from glass-water interface: (a) without temporal averaging and (b) with 9-s temporal averaging (512 scans). (The peak at the depth of approximately 220 μm is an artifact associated with reflection from the optical elements of the system and from the cuvette walls.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT image and signals obtained from human skin in vivo (forearm area). The lateral scanning was performed with the external generator within Δy = 0.6 mm (20 Hz) and with the built-in generator within Δx = 1.2 mm. (a) Two-dimensional image (dimensions Δx × Δz are 1.2 mm × 1 mm), (b) result of averaging of ∼100 in-depth scans, (c) result of averaging of ∼2100 in-depth scans.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT signal from the Spectralon reflectance standard: (a) without spatial averaging and (b) with spatial averaging over the area 3.4 mm × 4.3 mm (N = 5 × 104).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images obtained from pig skin in vitro (a) uncovered and (b) covered by a glass plate (dimensions Δx × Δz are 0.17 mm × 0.8 mm). (c) Backscattering signals reconstructed from images of uncovered (dash curve) and covered (solid curve) pig skin with spatial averaging over the area 3.4 mm × 4.3 mm (N = 5 × 104).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean value of the OCT signal at different depths within the sample (the Spectralon standard and human skin) versus the number of scans averaged.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviation for the Spectralon standard and human skin at different mean values of backscattering signals versus the number of spatially independent scans.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM for human skin and for the Spectralon standard versus the number of scans averaged.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of the statistical coefficient M 1/2(M - 1)/(Δ′)1/2 on the number M of increments within the fitting interval Δz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OCT signals from pig skin (solid curve), Spectralon standard (dash-dotted curve), and water suspension of polystyrene microspheres (μ s ≅ 10 mm-1, microsphere diameter is 0.44 μm, dashed curve).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Statistical Characteristics of Averaged Speckle Noise in OCT Signals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Contribution of Different Error Sources to Total SEM of the OCT Signal Measured from Pig Skina

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fz=F0 exp-μtz,
SEMσ/N1/2,
SEMrel=SEM/A,
SEMOCT=SEMtot2-σ2/N1/20.09-0.1dB,
SEMroughness=SEMtot2-SEMOCT2-σ2/N1/2.
SEMb=SEMS×M/Δ1/2,
Δ=M m=1M xm2-m=1M xm2.
Δ=ΔzM-12×M m=1M m2-m=1M m2ΔzM-12×Δ.
SEMμs= SEMS2Δz× M1/2×M-1Δ1/2.
SEMrelμs=SEMrelS× SΔS× M1/2×M-1Δ1/2,
ΔS=2μs×Δz.
SEMrelμs1.2×SEMrelS.
SEMrelμs2.7×SEMrelS.

Metrics