Abstract

The simultaneous measurement of three oxygen-sensitive parameters [arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2), tumor vascular-oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]), and tumor oxygen tension (pO2)] in response to hyperoxic respiratory challenge is demonstrated in rat breast tumors. The effects of two hyperoxic gases [oxygen and carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2)] were compared, by use of two groups of Fisher rats with subcutaneous 13762NF breast tumors implanted in pedicles on the foreback. Two different gas-inhalation sequences were compared, i.e., air-carbogen-air-oxygen-air and air-oxygen-air-carbogen-air. The results demonstrate that both of the inhaled, hyperoxic gases significantly improved the tumor oxygen status. All three parameters displayed similar dynamic response to hyperoxic gas interventions, but with different response times: the fastest for arterial SaO2, followed by biphasic changes in tumor vascular [HbO2], and then delayed responses for pO2. Both of the gases induced similar changes in vascular oxygenation and regional tissue pO2 in the rat tumors, and changes in [HbO2] and mean pO2 showed a linear correlation with large standard deviations, which presumably results from global versus local measurements. Indeed, the pO2 data revealed heterogeneous regional response to hyperoxic interventions. Although preliminary near-infrared measurements had been demonstrated previously in this model, the addition of the pO2 optical fiber probes provides a link between the noninvasive relative measurements of vascular phenomena based on endogenous reporter molecules, with the quantitative, albeit, invasive pO2 determinations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 53, 744–756 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kaanders, J. Bussink, van der A. J. Kogel, “ARCON: a novel biology-based approach in radiotherapy,” Lancet Oncol. 3, 728–737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Dynamic breast tumor oximetry: the development of prognostic radiology,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 1–8 (2002).

2001 (6)

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, L. Jiang, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Prognostic radiology: quantitative assessment of tumor oxygen dynamics by MRI,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 462–466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Thews, D. K. Kelleher, P. Vaupel, “Erythropoietin restores the anemia-induced reduction in cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity in rat tumors,” Cancer Res. 61, 1358–1361 (2001).
[PubMed]

C. B. Allen, B. K. Schneider, C. J. White, “Limitations to oxygen diffusion in in vitro cell exposure systems in hyperoxia and hypoxia,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Molec. Physiol. 281, L1021–L1027 (2001).

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Tumor hypoxia: definitions and current clinical, biologic, and molecular aspects,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. Bussink, J. H. A. M. Kaanders, A. M. Strik, B. Vojnovic, A. J. van der Kogel, “Optical sensor-based oxygen tension measurements correspond with hypoxia marker binding in three human tumor xenograft lines,” Radiat. Res. 154, 547–555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nordsmark, J. Overgaard, “A confirmatory prognostic study on oxygenation status and loco-regional control in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy,” Radiother. Oncol. 57, 39–43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dische, M. I. Saunders, R. Sealy, “Carcinoma of the cervix and the use of hyperbaric oxygen with radiotherapy: a report of a randomized controlled trial,” Radiother. Oncol. 53, 93–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Griffiths, “The OxyLite: a fibre-optic oxygen sensor,” Br. J. Radiol. 72, 627–630 (1999).

F. A. Howe, S. P. Robinson, L. M. Rodrigues, J. R. Griffiths, “Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 17, 1307–1318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vaupel, D. K. Kelleher, O. Thews, “Modulation of tumor oxygenation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Bio. Phys. 42, 843–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. I. Saunders, P. J. Hoskin, K. Pigott, “Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in locally advanced head and neck cancer: a feasibility study,” Radiother. Oncol. 45, 159–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Overgaard, M. R. Horsman, “Modification of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in tumors by the use of oxygen and sensitizers,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 6, 10–21 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. H. A. M. Kaanders, L. A. M. Pop, H. A. M. Marres, R. W. M. van der Maazen, A. J. van der Kogel, W. A. J. van Daal, “Radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in head and neck cancer: feasibility and toxicity,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, 190–198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Laurence, R. Ward, I. F. Dennis, N. M. Bleehen, “Carbogen breathing with nicotinamide improves the oxygen status of tumors in patients,” Br. J Cancer 72, 198–205 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin, E. Lartigau, P. Weeger, “Changes in the oxygenation of head and neck tumors during carbogen breathing,” Radiother. Oncol. 27, 123–130 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Dische, “What we learnt from hyperbaric oxygen?” Radiother. Oncol. 20(Suppl.), 71–74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

1967 (1)

J. A. Kruuv, W. R. Inch, J. A. McCredie, “Blood flow and oxygenation of tumors in mice. I. Effects of breathing gases containing carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure,” Cancer. 20, 51–59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

D. Cater, I. Silver, “Quantitative measurements of oxygen tension in normal tissues and in the tumors of patients before and after radiotherapy,” Acta Radiol. 53, 233–256 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, C. B.

C. B. Allen, B. K. Schneider, C. J. White, “Limitations to oxygen diffusion in in vitro cell exposure systems in hyperoxia and hypoxia,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Molec. Physiol. 281, L1021–L1027 (2001).

Allt, W. E. C.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Antich, P. P.

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babcock, E. E.

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beale, F. A.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Bleehen, N. M.

V. M. Laurence, R. Ward, I. F. Dennis, N. M. Bleehen, “Carbogen breathing with nicotinamide improves the oxygen status of tumors in patients,” Br. J Cancer 72, 198–205 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blessington, D.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R. D.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bush, R. S.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Bussink, J.

J. H. Kaanders, J. Bussink, van der A. J. Kogel, “ARCON: a novel biology-based approach in radiotherapy,” Lancet Oncol. 3, 728–737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bussink, J. H. A. M. Kaanders, A. M. Strik, B. Vojnovic, A. J. van der Kogel, “Optical sensor-based oxygen tension measurements correspond with hypoxia marker binding in three human tumor xenograft lines,” Radiat. Res. 154, 547–555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cater, D.

D. Cater, I. Silver, “Quantitative measurements of oxygen tension in normal tissues and in the tumors of patients before and after radiotherapy,” Acta Radiol. 53, 233–256 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaplin, D. J.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, W.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conger, A.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conover, D. L.

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constantinescu, A.

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Dynamic breast tumor oximetry: the development of prognostic radiology,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 1–8 (2002).

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 53, 744–756 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, L. Jiang, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Prognostic radiology: quantitative assessment of tumor oxygen dynamics by MRI,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 462–466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Measurement of tumor oxygen dynamics predicts beneficial adjuvant intervention for radiotherapy in Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumors,” Radiat. Res. (to be published) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dembo, A. J.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Dennis, I. F.

V. M. Laurence, R. Ward, I. F. Dennis, N. M. Bleehen, “Carbogen breathing with nicotinamide improves the oxygen status of tumors in patients,” Br. J Cancer 72, 198–205 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dische, S.

S. Dische, M. I. Saunders, R. Sealy, “Carcinoma of the cervix and the use of hyperbaric oxygen with radiotherapy: a report of a randomized controlled trial,” Radiother. Oncol. 53, 93–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Dische, “What we learnt from hyperbaric oxygen?” Radiother. Oncol. 20(Suppl.), 71–74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, T. J.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebert, M.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fyles, A. W.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, L.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, J. R.

J. R. Griffiths, “The OxyLite: a fibre-optic oxygen sensor,” Br. J. Radiol. 72, 627–630 (1999).

F. A. Howe, S. P. Robinson, L. M. Rodrigues, J. R. Griffiths, “Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 17, 1307–1318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. W.

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 53, 744–756 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, L. Jiang, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Prognostic radiology: quantitative assessment of tumor oxygen dynamics by MRI,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 462–466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Measurement of tumor oxygen dynamics predicts beneficial adjuvant intervention for radiotherapy in Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumors,” Radiat. Res. (to be published) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, E. J.

E. J. Hall, Radiobiology for the Radiologist, 4th ed. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Hasegawa, T.

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hill, R. P.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höckel, M.

M. Höckel, P. Vaupel, “Tumor hypoxia: definitions and current clinical, biologic, and molecular aspects,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornsey, S.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horsman, M. R.

J. Overgaard, M. R. Horsman, “Modification of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in tumors by the use of oxygen and sensitizers,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 6, 10–21 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoskin, P. J.

M. I. Saunders, P. J. Hoskin, K. Pigott, “Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in locally advanced head and neck cancer: a feasibility study,” Radiother. Oncol. 45, 159–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Howe, F. A.

F. A. Howe, S. P. Robinson, L. M. Rodrigues, J. R. Griffiths, “Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 17, 1307–1318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, E. L.

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunjan, S.

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inch, W. R.

J. A. Kruuv, W. R. Inch, J. A. McCredie, “Blood flow and oxygenation of tumors in mice. I. Effects of breathing gases containing carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure,” Cancer. 20, 51–59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkin, R. D. T.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Jiang, L.

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, L. Jiang, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Prognostic radiology: quantitative assessment of tumor oxygen dynamics by MRI,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 462–466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Kaanders, J. H.

J. H. Kaanders, J. Bussink, van der A. J. Kogel, “ARCON: a novel biology-based approach in radiotherapy,” Lancet Oncol. 3, 728–737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaanders, J. H. A. M.

J. Bussink, J. H. A. M. Kaanders, A. M. Strik, B. Vojnovic, A. J. van der Kogel, “Optical sensor-based oxygen tension measurements correspond with hypoxia marker binding in three human tumor xenograft lines,” Radiat. Res. 154, 547–555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. A. M. Kaanders, L. A. M. Pop, H. A. M. Marres, R. W. M. van der Maazen, A. J. van der Kogel, W. A. J. van Daal, “Radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in head and neck cancer: feasibility and toxicity,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, 190–198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, M. C.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, T. J.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelleher, D. K.

O. Thews, D. K. Kelleher, P. Vaupel, “Erythropoietin restores the anemia-induced reduction in cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity in rat tumors,” Cancer Res. 61, 1358–1361 (2001).
[PubMed]

P. Vaupel, D. K. Kelleher, O. Thews, “Modulation of tumor oxygenation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Bio. Phys. 42, 843–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitagishi, K.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogel, van der A. J.

J. H. Kaanders, J. Bussink, van der A. J. Kogel, “ARCON: a novel biology-based approach in radiotherapy,” Lancet Oncol. 3, 728–737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruuv, J. A.

J. A. Kruuv, W. R. Inch, J. A. McCredie, “Blood flow and oxygenation of tumors in mice. I. Effects of breathing gases containing carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure,” Cancer. 20, 51–59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lartigau, E.

L. Martin, E. Lartigau, P. Weeger, “Changes in the oxygenation of head and neck tumors during carbogen breathing,” Radiother. Oncol. 27, 123–130 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurence, V. M.

V. M. Laurence, R. Ward, I. F. Dennis, N. M. Bleehen, “Carbogen breathing with nicotinamide improves the oxygen status of tumors in patients,” Br. J Cancer 72, 198–205 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I.

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

Levin, W.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levitt, S.

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

Liu, H.

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manchul, L.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marres, H. A. M.

J. H. A. M. Kaanders, L. A. M. Pop, H. A. M. Marres, R. W. M. van der Maazen, A. J. van der Kogel, W. A. J. van Daal, “Radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in head and neck cancer: feasibility and toxicity,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, 190–198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, L.

L. Martin, E. Lartigau, P. Weeger, “Changes in the oxygenation of head and neck tumors during carbogen breathing,” Radiother. Oncol. 27, 123–130 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, R. P.

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Dynamic breast tumor oximetry: the development of prognostic radiology,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 1–8 (2002).

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 53, 744–756 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, L. Jiang, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Prognostic radiology: quantitative assessment of tumor oxygen dynamics by MRI,” Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 462–466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: demonstration of an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using Fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 rat tumor,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49, 1097–1108 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Measurement of tumor oxygen dynamics predicts beneficial adjuvant intervention for radiotherapy in Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumors,” Radiat. Res. (to be published) (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCredie, J. A.

J. A. Kruuv, W. R. Inch, J. A. McCredie, “Blood flow and oxygenation of tumors in mice. I. Effects of breathing gases containing carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure,” Cancer. 20, 51–59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, M.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, K.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nordsmark, M.

M. Nordsmark, J. Overgaard, “A confirmatory prognostic study on oxygenation status and loco-regional control in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy,” Radiother. Oncol. 57, 39–43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overgaard, J.

M. Nordsmark, J. Overgaard, “A confirmatory prognostic study on oxygenation status and loco-regional control in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy,” Radiother. Oncol. 57, 39–43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Overgaard, M. R. Horsman, “Modification of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in tumors by the use of oxygen and sensitizers,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 6, 10–21 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschke, P.

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, T.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigott, K.

M. I. Saunders, P. J. Hoskin, K. Pigott, “Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in locally advanced head and neck cancer: a feasibility study,” Radiother. Oncol. 45, 159–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pintile, M.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pop, L. A. M.

J. H. A. M. Kaanders, L. A. M. Pop, H. A. M. Marres, R. W. M. van der Maazen, A. J. van der Kogel, W. A. J. van Daal, “Radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in head and neck cancer: feasibility and toxicity,” Radiother. Oncol. 37, 190–198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pringle, J. F.

R. S. Bush, R. D. T. Jenkin, W. E. C. Allt, F. A. Beale, A. J. Dembo, J. F. Pringle, “Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy,” Br. J Cancer 37(suppl 3), 302–306 (1978).

Qian, Z.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Y. Gu, Z. Qian, J. Chen, D. Blessington, N. Ramanujam, B. Chance, “High resolution three dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 172–178 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J.

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

Rhemus, W. E.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, S. P.

F. A. Howe, S. P. Robinson, L. M. Rodrigues, J. R. Griffiths, “Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 17, 1307–1318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigues, L. M.

F. A. Howe, S. P. Robinson, L. M. Rodrigues, J. R. Griffiths, “Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 17, 1307–1318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosner, G. L.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, M. I.

S. Dische, M. I. Saunders, R. Sealy, “Carcinoma of the cervix and the use of hyperbaric oxygen with radiotherapy: a report of a randomized controlled trial,” Radiother. Oncol. 53, 93–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Saunders, P. J. Hoskin, K. Pigott, “Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in locally advanced head and neck cancer: a feasibility study,” Radiother. Oncol. 45, 159–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, B. K.

C. B. Allen, B. K. Schneider, C. J. White, “Limitations to oxygen diffusion in in vitro cell exposure systems in hyperoxia and hypoxia,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Molec. Physiol. 281, L1021–L1027 (2001).

Scott, O.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sealy, R.

S. Dische, M. I. Saunders, R. Sealy, “Carcinoma of the cervix and the use of hyperbaric oxygen with radiotherapy: a report of a randomized controlled trial,” Radiother. Oncol. 53, 93–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Secomb, T. W.

T. J. Dunn, R. D. Braun, W. E. Rhemus, G. L. Rosner, T. W. Secomb, G. M. Tozer, D. J. Chaplin, M. W. Dewhirst, “The effects of hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases on tumour blood flow,” Br. J. Cancer 80, 117–126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silver, I.

D. Cater, I. Silver, “Quantitative measurements of oxygen tension in normal tissues and in the tumors of patients before and after radiotherapy,” Acta Radiol. 53, 233–256 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

C. Song, I. Lee, T. Hasegawa, J. Rhee, S. Levitt, “Increase in pO2 and radiosensitivity of tumors by Fluosol and carbogen,” Cancer Res. 47, 442–446 (1987).
[PubMed]

Song, Y.

J. G. Kim, Y. Song, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, H. Liu, “Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and pO2 in tumors using NIRS, 19F MR pO2 mapping, and pO2 needle electrode,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 53–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Dynamic breast tumor oximetry: the development of prognostic radiology,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 1–8 (2002).

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steen, R. G.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H. B.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strik, A. M.

J. Bussink, J. H. A. M. Kaanders, A. M. Strik, B. Vojnovic, A. J. van der Kogel, “Optical sensor-based oxygen tension measurements correspond with hypoxia marker binding in three human tumor xenograft lines,” Radiat. Res. 154, 547–555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, A.

A. W. Fyles, M. Milosevic, R. Wong, M. C. Kavanagh, M. Pintile, A. Sun, W. Chapman, W. Levin, L. Manchul, T. J. Keane, R. P. Hill, “Oxygenation predicts radiation response and survival in patients with cervix cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 48, 149–156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. M.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thews, O.

O. Thews, D. K. Kelleher, P. Vaupel, “Erythropoietin restores the anemia-induced reduction in cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity in rat tumors,” Cancer Res. 61, 1358–1361 (2001).
[PubMed]

P. Vaupel, D. K. Kelleher, O. Thews, “Modulation of tumor oxygenation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Bio. Phys. 42, 843–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
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Other (3)

Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, Fla., March2003. http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/foxysystem.asp

E. J. Hall, Radiobiology for the Radiologist, 4th ed. (Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Measurement of tumor oxygen dynamics predicts beneficial adjuvant intervention for radiotherapy in Dunning prostate R3327-HI tumors,” Radiat. Res. (to be published) (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for simultaneous oximetry. The 3-mm-diameter fiber bundles of the NIRS system deliver and detect the laser light through the tumor in transmittance geometry. PMT represents a photomultiplier tube. I/Q is an in-phase and quadrature phase demodulator for retrieving amplitude and phase information. The FOXY system comprises three fiber-optic oxygen-sensing probes that are inserted into different regions of the tumor. The pulse oximeter probe is placed on the hind foot of the rat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time profile of the three oxygen-sensitive parameters, i.e., the normalized changes of tumor Δ[HbO2], the mean changes of tumor ΔpO2, and the arterial SaO2 with respect to carbogen breathing in a representative 13762NF rat breast tumor (No. 1, 3.2 cm3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic responses of the three oxygen-sensitive parameters to carbogen intervention in a rat breast tumor (No. 1, 3.2 cm3). Single-exponential curve fitting yielded SaO2 = 0.204{1 - exp[-(t - 20.02)/1.1]} + 0.85 (R = 0.93), Δ[HbO2] = 0.655{1 - exp[-(t - 20.36)/2.59]} + 0.125 (R = 0.89), and ΔpO2 = 42.68{1 - exp[-(t - 21.01)/4.56]} + 16.66 (R = 0.98); biexponential fitting resulted in Δ[HbO2] = 0.373{1 - exp[-(t - 20.36)/0.61]} + 0.648{1 - exp[-(t - 20.36)/21]} (R = 0.97).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time course of changes in tumor vascular Δ[HbO2] for a representative 13762NF breast tumor from Group 1 (No. 2, 3.0 cm3) with respect to altering inhaled gas. (b) Respective curve fits for the carbogen and oxygen interventions. (c) Average maximum values of normalized Δ[HbO2] for the seven breast tumors in Group 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dynamic changes in tumor vascular Δ[HbO2] for a representative 13762NF breast tumor from Group 2 (No. 9, 2.6 cm3) with gas-inhalation sequence reversed compared with Group 1. (b) Average maximum values of normalized Δ[HbO2] for Group 2. Gas-inhalation sequence reversed compared with Group 1. (c) Correlation between maximum Δ[HbO2] achieved with carbogen inhalation versus that with oxygen (R = 0.97): ◆, carbogen first; △, oxygen first.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time profiles of tumor ΔpO2, measured with the three channels of the FOXY fiber-optic, oxygen-sensing system with respect to different gas inhalations for breast tumor No. 3 (4.6 cm3). The mean signal for the three channels was calculated and is plotted by the thicker trace. (b) Correlation between ΔpO2 at individual locations in the tumors in response to carbogen or oxygen for the five tumors in Group 1 (R > 0.8).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation between mean ΔpO2 and Δ[HbO2] for the five breast tumors (R > 0.86): ◆, transition from air to carbogen; △, transition from air to oxygen.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Time Constants of SaO2, Δ[HbO2], and ΔpO2 Response to Carbogen and Oxygen Intervention in the Breast Tumorsa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔHbO2=-10.63 logABAT758+14.97 logABAT785d,
ΔHb=8.95 logABAT758-6.73 logABAT785d,
I0I=1+K1O+K2O2

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