Abstract

We report coregistration of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the study of animal model tumors. A combined broadband steady-state and frequency-domain apparatus was used to determine tissue oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and water concentration locally in tumors. Simultaneous MRI coregistration provided structural (T2-weighted) and contrast-enhanced images of the tumor that were correlated with the optical measurements. By use of Monte Carlo simulations, the optically sampled volume was superimposed on the MR images, showing precisely which tissue structure was probed optically. DOS and MRI coregistration measurements were performed on seven rats over 20 days and were separated into three tumor tissue classifications: viable, edematous, and necrotic. A ratio of water concentration to total hemoglobin concentration, as measured optically, was performed for each tissue type and showed values for edematous tissue to be greater than viable tissue (1.2 ± 0.49 M/μM versus 0.48 ± 0.15 M/μM). Tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) also showed a large variation between tissue types: viable tissue had an optically measured StO2 value of 61 ± 5%, whereas StO2 determined for necrotic tissue was 43 ± 6%.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2002 (6)

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, A. K. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10, 159–170 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, M.-Y. Su, O. Nalcioglu, “Applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in oncology: measurement of tumor oxygen tension,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 29–38 (2002).

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (8)

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

F. Bevilacqua, C. Depeursinge, “Monte Carlo study of diffuse reflectance at source-detector separations close to one transport mean free path,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935–2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Brown, “The hypoxic cell: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Res. 59, 5863–5870 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurements of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sevick, J. K. Frisoli, C. L. Burch, J. R. Lakowicz, “Localization of absorbers in scattering media by use of frequency-domain measurements of time-dependent photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3562–3570 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-Y. Su, J.-C. Jao, O. Nalcioglu, “Measurement of vascular volume fraction and blood-tissue permeability constants with a pharmacokinetic model: studies in rat muscle tumors with dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 714–724 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Acero, C. O.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Antich, P. P.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aral, B.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Bai, J.

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balatoni, J.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrio, J. R.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacaua, F.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, S. Merritt, B. J. Tromberg, G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, “In vivo quantification of optical contrast agent dynamics in rat tumors by use of diffuse optical spectroscopy with magnetic resonance imaging coregistration,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2940–2950 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, C. Depeursinge, “Monte Carlo study of diffuse reflectance at source-detector separations close to one transport mean free path,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935–2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, J. S. You, B. J. Tromberg, V. Venugopalan, “Sampling of tissue volume by frequency-domain photon migration,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000),pp.78–80.

Blasberg, R.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blum, C.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bowser, C.

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

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A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Cerussi, A. E.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
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V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
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S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
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V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
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V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
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T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
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D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
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E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
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D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
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Coquoz, O.

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S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
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Fishkin, J. B.

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
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E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
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A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
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V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Gulsen, G.

Hahn, E. W.

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
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T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

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S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
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Higuchi, H.

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
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M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
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D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
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T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
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A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Hueber, D.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, E. L.

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunjan, S.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
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T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
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D. B. Jakubowski, “Development of broadband quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy for the non-invasive characterization of breast disease,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, Calif.,2002).

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Jansen, R. W. M. M.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
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M.-Y. Su, J.-C. Jao, O. Nalcioglu, “Measurement of vascular volume fraction and blood-tissue permeability constants with a pharmacokinetic model: studies in rat muscle tumors with dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 714–724 (1994).
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Jiang, X.

Johnson, T. M.

Katsumura, T.

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
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T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurements of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschmidt, A.

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
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Koelink, H. M.

Kohl-Bareis, M.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, G.

Kurosawa, Y.

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

Lanning, R.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le, D.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
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Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
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Ma, X. H.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maekawa, K.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, R. P.

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehagnoul-Schipper, D. J.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merboldt, K.-L.

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merritt, S.

Michalos, A.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitze, M.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Morgan, K.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurements of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

Nalcioglu, O.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, S. Merritt, B. J. Tromberg, G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, “In vivo quantification of optical contrast agent dynamics in rat tumors by use of diffuse optical spectroscopy with magnetic resonance imaging coregistration,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2940–2950 (2003).
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M.-Y. Su, J.-C. Jao, O. Nalcioglu, “Measurement of vascular volume fraction and blood-tissue permeability constants with a pharmacokinetic model: studies in rat muscle tumors with dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 714–724 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oeseburg, B.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okada, E.

Osei, E. K.

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Peschke, P.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T.

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pham, T. H.

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelps, M. E.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B.

Rajan, S. S.

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requardt, M.

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadelain, M.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Safonova, L.

Sakatani, K.

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sako, T.

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

Satayamurthy, N.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schäffer, U.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Schlenger, K.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schnall, M.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

Sevick, E. M.

Shah, N.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

Shen, D.

Sloot, P. M. A.

Song, Y.

Steen, R. G.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurements of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stott, J. J.

Su, M.-Y.

Z. Wang, M.-Y. Su, O. Nalcioglu, “Applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in oncology: measurement of tumor oxygen tension,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 29–38 (2002).

M.-Y. Su, J.-C. Jao, O. Nalcioglu, “Measurement of vascular volume fraction and blood-tissue permeability constants with a pharmacokinetic model: studies in rat muscle tumors with dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 714–724 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadir, Y.

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thijssen, H. O. M.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tjuvajev, J.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toronov, V.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyokuni, T.

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, S. Merritt, B. J. Tromberg, G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, “In vivo quantification of optical contrast agent dynamics in rat tumors by use of diffuse optical spectroscopy with magnetic resonance imaging coregistration,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2940–2950 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

F. Bevilacqua, J. S. You, B. J. Tromberg, V. Venugopalan, “Sampling of tissue volume by frequency-domain photon migration,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000),pp.78–80.

Uludag, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Kallen, B. F. W.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Sluijs, M. C.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Erning, L. J. Th. O.

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaupel, P.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

F. Bevilacqua, J. S. You, B. J. Tromberg, V. Venugopalan, “Sampling of tissue volume by frequency-domain photon migration,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000),pp.78–80.

Villringer, A.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakasa, T.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, M.-Y. Su, O. Nalcioglu, “Applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in oncology: measurement of tumor oxygen tension,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 29–38 (2002).

Webb, A.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrle, J. P.

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. A.

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, L. Safonova, U. Wolf, E. Gratton, “Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Express 9, 417–427 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

Worden, K. L.

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, Y.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatani, H.

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J. S.

F. Bevilacqua, J. S. You, B. J. Tromberg, V. Venugopalan, “Sampling of tissue volume by frequency-domain photon migration,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000),pp.78–80.

Yu, H.

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijp, J. R.

Zuo, H.

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, H. M. Koelink, “Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
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E. M. Sevick, J. K. Frisoli, C. L. Burch, J. R. Lakowicz, “Localization of absorbers in scattering media by use of frequency-domain measurements of time-dependent photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3562–3570 (1994).
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M. S. Patterson, S. Andersson-Engels, B. C. Wilson, E. K. Osei, “Absorption spectroscopy in tissue-simulating materials: a theoretical and experimental study of photon paths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 22–29 (1995).
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E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head”,Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
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J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6498–6507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, “Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5231–5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, S. Merritt, B. J. Tromberg, G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, “In vivo quantification of optical contrast agent dynamics in rat tumors by use of diffuse optical spectroscopy with magnetic resonance imaging coregistration,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2940–2950 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Oral. Biol. (1)

T. Kuboki, K. Suzuki, K. Maekawa, M. Inoue-Minakuchi, C. O. Acero, Y. Yanagi, T. Wakasa, K. Kishi, H. Yatani, G. T. Clark, “Correlation of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal with signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the human masseter muscle,” Arch. Oral. Biol. 46, 721–727 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumour oxygenation reported by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schäffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. M. Brown, “The hypoxic cell: a target for selective cancer therapy,” Cancer Res. 59, 5863–5870 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hum. Brain Map. (1)

D. J. Mehagnoul-Schipper, B. F. W. van der Kallen, W. N. J. M. Colier, M. C. van der Sluijs, L. J. Th. O. van Erning, H. O. M. Thijssen, B. Oeseburg, W. H. L. Hoefnagels, R. W. M. M. Jansen, “Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and elderly subjects,” Hum. Brain Map. 16, 14–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

T. Sako, T. Hamaoka, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Katsumura, “Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 338–344 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, A. Villringer, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464–470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K.-L. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, J. Frahm, “Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 817–826 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neuro-Oncol. (1)

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurements of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

M.-Y. Su, J.-C. Jao, O. Nalcioglu, “Measurement of vascular volume fraction and blood-tissue permeability constants with a pharmacokinetic model: studies in rat muscle tumors with dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 714–724 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, “Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Med. Phys. 28, 521–527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasa (1)

S. S. Gambhir, H. R. Herschman, S. R. Cherry, J. R. Barrio, N. Satayamurthy, T. Toyokuni, M. E. Phelps, S. M. Larson, J. Balatoni, R. Finn, M. Sadelain, J. Tjuvajev, R. Blasberg, “Image trangene expression with radionuclide image technologies,Neoplasa 2, 118–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neoplasia (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347–354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NMR Biomed. (1)

R. G. Steen, D. A. Wilson, C. Bowser, J. P. Wehrle, J. D. Glickson, S. S. Rajan, “31P NMR Spectroscopic and near infrared spectrophotometric studies of effects of anesthetics on in vivo RIF-1 tumors. Relationship to tumor radiosensitivity,” NMR Biomed. 2, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Xie, K. Sakatani, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, Z. Xie, J. Bai, “Near-infrared spectroscopy studies on cerebral blood oxygenation changes during brain activation: possible limitations of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2302–2307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

T. H. Pham, R. Homung, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, “Monitoring tumor response during photodynamic therapy using near-infrared photon-migration spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 669–677 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, “Determination of the optical properties of semi-infinite turbid media from frequency-domain reflectance close to the source,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1801–1819 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Res. (2)

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oxygen dynamics with respect to growth and respiratory challenge: investigation of the dunning prostate R3327-HI tumor,” Radiat. Res. 156, 510–520 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500–2513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

Z. Wang, M.-Y. Su, O. Nalcioglu, “Applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in oncology: measurement of tumor oxygen tension,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 29–38 (2002).

Other (4)

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacaua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, B. J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, Calif. 92612, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study.”

D. B. Jakubowski, “Development of broadband quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy for the non-invasive characterization of breast disease,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, Calif.,2002).

Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).

F. Bevilacqua, J. S. You, B. J. Tromberg, V. Venugopalan, “Sampling of tissue volume by frequency-domain photon migration,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000),pp.78–80.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of MRI and NIRS instruments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of T2-weighted MRI of rat cross section with MC map superimposed on image. Six white dots above the rat are cross sections of three H2O · CuSO4 filled tubes that wrap around probe. The markers determine the location of the source and detector fibers, separated by 5.7 mm. The input parameters for MC map are μ a = 0.015 mm-1, μ s ′ = 1.30 mm-1, and modulation frequency of 300 Mhz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solid curve, μ a tumor spectrum measured optically with DOS instrument. Dashed curve, fit of Hb, HbO2, H2O, and baseline absorption spectra to measured μ a spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of (a) T2 and (b) enhancement image for viable tissue. The source and detector fibers (5.7-mm separation) are represented by white bars on tumors. Area within white MC contour line represents 75% weight of MC map. Optical measurements: H2O = 30 ± 0.4 M, THC = 61 ± 0.6 μM, StO2 = 62 ± 0.5%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of (a) T2 and (b) enhancement image for edematous tissue. Source-detector distance and contour line are as in Fig. 4. Optical measurements: H2O = 102 ± 2 M, THC = 66 ± 2 μM, StO2 = 64 ± 2%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of (a) T2 and (b) enhancement image for necrotic tissue. Source-detector distance and contour line are as in Fig. 4. Optical measurements: H2O = 31 ± 0.3 M, THC = 45 ± 1 μM, StO2 = 51 ± 2%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

All optical measurements determined from SS-FD data plotted on graph of StO2 versus H2O. The three tissue types as identified by MRI are separated clearly on the plot: edematous tissue (○), viable tissue (■), and necrotic tissue (△).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

T2-weighted images of a rat tumor for days (a) 1, (b) 11, and (c) 20. Source-detector distance and contour line are as in Fig. 4 for each image. Chromophore values for the same rat tumor in (a), (b), and (c) are plotted for all optical measurements over the 20-day period in (d). H2O values (●) are measured in molars, StO2 values (▲) in percentage, and THC values (■) in micromolars.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chromophore Values Measured Optically for Different Tissue Typesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ratio of H2O [M] to THC [μM] for Different Tissue Types

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