Abstract

The heterogeneity of the tissues in a head, especially the low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer surrounding the brain has previously been shown to strongly affect light propagation in the brain. The radiosity-diffusion method, in which the light propagation in the CSF layer is assumed to obey the radiosity theory, has been employed to predict the light propagation in head models. Although the CSF layer is assumed to be a nonscattering region in the radiosity-diffusion method, fine arachnoid trabeculae cause faint scattering in the CSF layer in real heads. A novel approach, the hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method, is proposed to calculate the head models, including the low-scattering region in which the light propagation does not obey neither the diffusion approximation nor the radiosity theory. The light propagation in the high-scattering region is calculated by means of the diffusion approximation solved by the finite-element method and that in the low-scattering region is predicted by the Monte Carlo method. The intensity and mean time of flight of the detected light for the head model with a low-scattering CSF layer calculated by the hybrid method agreed well with those by the Monte Carlo method, whereas the results calculated by means of the diffusion approximation included considerable error caused by the effect of the CSF layer. In the hybrid method, the time-consuming Monte Carlo calculation is employed only for the thin CSF layer, and hence, the computation time of the hybrid method is dramatically shorter than that of the Monte Carlo method.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses,” Neuroimage 8, 69–78 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses,” Neuroimage 8, 69–78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anday, E.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite element method for the forward model in infra-red absorption imaging,” in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson, J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1768, 97–108 (1992).

Chance, B.

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corballis, P.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Near infrared light propagation in an adult head model. Part 1: Modeling of low-level scattering in cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses,” Neuroimage 8, 69–78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite element method for the forward model in infra-red absorption imaging,” in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson, J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1768, 97–108 (1992).

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scattering objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).

Fabiani, M.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses,” Neuroimage 8, 69–78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scattering objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).

Franceschini, M. A.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, D.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, G.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite element method for the forward model in infra-red absorption imaging,” in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson, J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1768, 97–108 (1992).

Hong, L.

Hoshi, Y.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, C.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohri, S.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuge, Y.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, T.

Nioka, S.

Okada, E.

Ovetsky, Y.

Pidikiti, D.

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3362–3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Direct calculation of the moments of the distribution of photon time of flight in tissue with a finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2683–2687 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scattering objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite element method for the forward model in infra-red absorption imaging,” in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson, J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1768, 97–108 (1992).

Simpson, C. R.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamaki, N.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).

Worden, K.

Zhou, S.

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithm,” Anal. Biochem. 227, 54–68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Cogn. Neurosci.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. Corballis, E. Gratton, “Rapid changes of optical parameters in the human brain during a tapping task,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7, 446–456 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses,” Neuroimage 8, 69–78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas.

S. Kohri, Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, C. Kato, Y. Kuge, N. Tamaki, “Quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution ratio of cerebral tissue to near-infrared signals in the adult human head: a preliminary study,” Physiol. Meas. 23, 301–312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite element method for the forward model in infra-red absorption imaging,” in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson, J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1768, 97–108 (1992).

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scattering objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).

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