Abstract

This study quantifies the range of premixed flame conditions for which CH fluorescence diagnostics are applicable, and it shows that the CH fluorescence signal can be increased if some of the hydrocarbon fuel is replaced with hydrogen. The CH fluorescence signal is found to be adequate for fuel-air equivalence ratios (ϕ) as small as 0.85 for both methane-air and propane-air flames. The CH signal increases until a maximum at ϕ = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.35 for methane-air and propane-air flames, respectively, and then decreases for richer conditions. A strategy to increase the CH fluorescence signal and decrease interference from soot precursors is proposed by addition of the proper amount of hydrogen to the hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrogen addition reduces the background signal from soot precursors by as much as a factor of 10 and increases the CH fluorescence signal by as much as 80%. The normalized CH fluorescence measurements are compared with computations that utilize GRI-mech 3.0 chemistry. Sources of experimental uncertainties are discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Mansour, N. Peters, Y. C. Chen, “Investigation of scalar mixing in the thin reaction zones regime using a simultaneous CH-LIF/Rayleigh laser technique,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 767–773.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. M. W. Renfro, “Fluorescence-lifetime measurements in atmospheric-pressure flames using nanosecond-pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 167–174 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Harris, F. E. Lytle, “Measurement of subnanosecond fluorescence decays by sampled single-photon detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1469–1476 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (1)

M. W. Renfro, “Fluorescence-lifetime measurements in atmospheric-pressure flames using nanosecond-pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 167–174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Renfro, A. Chaturvedy, N. M. Laurendeau, “Semi-quantitative measurements of CH concentration in atmospheric-pressure counterflow diffusion flames using picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 25–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Donbar, J. F. Driscoll, C. D. Carter, “Reaction zone structure in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames—from CH-OH PLIF images,” Combust. Flame 122, 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, N. M. Laurendeau, “Comparison of saturated and linear laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in counterflow diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 117, 810–820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. C. Chen, M. S. Mansour, “Simultaneous Rayleigh scattering and laser-induced CH fluorescence for reaction zone imaging in high-speed premixed hydrocarbon flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 599–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “Absolute CH concentrations in low pressure flames measured with laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 91–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, “The effect of flame structure on soot-particle inception in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 100, 367–375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, J. Kelly, “Stabilization of lifted turbulent-jet flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 75–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

K. J. Rensberger, M. J. Dyer, R. A. Copeland, “Time-resolved CH (A2Δ and B2∑-) laser-induced fluorescence in low-pressure hydrocarbon flames,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3679–3689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of hydroxyl concentration profiles using five laser-induced fluorescence methods in a lean subatmospheric-pressure H2/O2/Ar flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 63, 139–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Analysis of probe volume effects associated with laser-saturated fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 65–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, “Comparison of turbulent diffusion flame measurements of OH by planar fluorescence and saturated fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 3, 283–292 (1985).

1983 (1)

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN concentration in flames by laser-induced saturated fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253–264 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. M. Harris, F. E. Lytle, “Measurement of subnanosecond fluorescence decays by sampled single-photon detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1469–1476 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adigun, O.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Axelbaum, R. L.

J. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, “The effect of flame structure on soot-particle inception in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 100, 367–375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Bilger, R. W.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Bonczyk, P. A.

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN concentration in flames by laser-induced saturated fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253–264 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Caracotsios, M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Carter, C. D.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Donbar, J. F. Driscoll, C. D. Carter, “Reaction zone structure in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames—from CH-OH PLIF images,” Combust. Flame 122, 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, N. M. Laurendeau, “Saturated fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in laminar high-pressure C2H6/O2/N2 flames,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1511–1522 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaturvedy, A.

M. W. Renfro, A. Chaturvedy, N. M. Laurendeau, “Semi-quantitative measurements of CH concentration in atmospheric-pressure counterflow diffusion flames using picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 25–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, M. S. Mansour, “Simultaneous Rayleigh scattering and laser-induced CH fluorescence for reaction zone imaging in high-speed premixed hydrocarbon flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 599–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Mansour, N. Peters, Y. C. Chen, “Investigation of scalar mixing in the thin reaction zones regime using a simultaneous CH-LIF/Rayleigh laser technique,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 767–773.
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. P.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Coltrin, M. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Cooper, C. S.

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, N. M. Laurendeau, “Comparison of saturated and linear laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in counterflow diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 117, 810–820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, R. A.

Crosley, D. R.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “Absolute CH concentrations in low pressure flames measured with laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 91–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” Stanford Research Institute Report MP99–009 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

Dibble, R. W.

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Dixon-Lewis, G.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Donbar, J. M.

J. M. Donbar, J. F. Driscoll, C. D. Carter, “Reaction zone structure in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames—from CH-OH PLIF images,” Combust. Flame 122, 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drake, M. C.

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, “Comparison of turbulent diffusion flame measurements of OH by planar fluorescence and saturated fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 3, 283–292 (1985).

Driscoll, J. F.

J. M. Donbar, J. F. Driscoll, C. D. Carter, “Reaction zone structure in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames—from CH-OH PLIF images,” Combust. Flame 122, 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

J. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, “The effect of flame structure on soot-particle inception in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 100, 367–375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, M. J.

Evans, G. H.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Fourgette, D. C.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Glarborg, P.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of hydroxyl concentration profiles using five laser-induced fluorescence methods in a lean subatmospheric-pressure H2/O2/Ar flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 63, 139–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grcar, J. F.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Hanson, R. K.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. M.

J. M. Harris, F. E. Lytle, “Measurement of subnanosecond fluorescence decays by sampled single-photon detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1469–1476 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Heberle, N. H.

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Houf, W. G.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Jeffries, J. B.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kee, R. J.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Kelly, J.

R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, J. Kelly, “Stabilization of lifted turbulent-jet flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 75–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, G. B.

Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larson, R. S.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Laurendeau, N. M.

M. W. Renfro, A. Chaturvedy, N. M. Laurendeau, “Semi-quantitative measurements of CH concentration in atmospheric-pressure counterflow diffusion flames using picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 25–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, N. M. Laurendeau, “Comparison of saturated and linear laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in counterflow diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 117, 810–820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, N. M. Laurendeau, “Saturated fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in laminar high-pressure C2H6/O2/N2 flames,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1511–1522 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of hydroxyl concentration profiles using five laser-induced fluorescence methods in a lean subatmospheric-pressure H2/O2/Ar flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 63, 139–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Analysis of probe volume effects associated with laser-saturated fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 65–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, B.

B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 1987).

Long, M. B.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Luque, J.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “Absolute CH concentrations in low pressure flames measured with laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 91–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” Stanford Research Institute Report MP99–009 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

Lutz, A. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Lyons, K. M.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, F. E.

J. M. Harris, F. E. Lytle, “Measurement of subnanosecond fluorescence decays by sampled single-photon detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1469–1476 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, M. S.

Y. C. Chen, M. S. Mansour, “Simultaneous Rayleigh scattering and laser-induced CH fluorescence for reaction zone imaging in high-speed premixed hydrocarbon flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 599–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Mansour, N. Peters, Y. C. Chen, “Investigation of scalar mixing in the thin reaction zones regime using a simultaneous CH-LIF/Rayleigh laser technique,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 767–773.
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, H.

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meeks, E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Miller, J. A.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Miller, S. F.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Mitchell, R. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Moffat, H. K.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Namazian, M.

R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, J. Kelly, “Stabilization of lifted turbulent-jet flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 75–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peters, N.

M. S. Mansour, N. Peters, Y. C. Chen, “Investigation of scalar mixing in the thin reaction zones regime using a simultaneous CH-LIF/Rayleigh laser technique,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 767–773.
[CrossRef]

Petzold, L. R.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Pitz, R. W.

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, “Comparison of turbulent diffusion flame measurements of OH by planar fluorescence and saturated fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 3, 283–292 (1985).

Ravikrishna, R. V.

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, N. M. Laurendeau, “Comparison of saturated and linear laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in counterflow diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 117, 810–820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renfro, M. W.

M. W. Renfro, “Fluorescence-lifetime measurements in atmospheric-pressure flames using nanosecond-pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 167–174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Renfro, A. Chaturvedy, N. M. Laurendeau, “Semi-quantitative measurements of CH concentration in atmospheric-pressure counterflow diffusion flames using picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 25–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rensberger, K. J.

Reynolds, W. C.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Rupley, F. M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Salmon, J. T.

Schefer, R. W.

R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, J. Kelly, “Stabilization of lifted turbulent-jet flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 75–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seitzman, J. M.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shimazu, M.

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, J. A.

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN concentration in flames by laser-induced saturated fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253–264 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smooke, M. D.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Stårner, S. H.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Takubo, Y.

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

von Elbe, G.

B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 1987).

Walsh, K. T.

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Warnatz, J.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

Watson, K. A.

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yano, H.

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

M. W. Renfro, “Fluorescence-lifetime measurements in atmospheric-pressure flames using nanosecond-pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 167–174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, R. J. H. Klein-Douwel, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional processes near the CH B2 ∑-v′ = 0, 1 predissociation limit in laser-induced fluorescence flame diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 85–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, M. S. Mansour, “Simultaneous Rayleigh scattering and laser-induced CH fluorescence for reaction zone imaging in high-speed premixed hydrocarbon flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 599–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Heberle, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, D. R. Crosley, R. W. Dibble, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering measurements of structure in partially premixed flames,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 733–740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “Absolute CH concentrations in low pressure flames measured with laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 91–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (8)

J. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, “The effect of flame structure on soot-particle inception in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 100, 367–375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Watson, K. M. Lyons, J. M. Donbar, C. D. Carter, “Simultaneous Rayleigh imaging and CH-PLIF measurements in a lifted jet diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 123, 252–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Donbar, J. F. Driscoll, C. D. Carter, “Reaction zone structure in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames—from CH-OH PLIF images,” Combust. Flame 122, 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, J. Kelly, “Stabilization of lifted turbulent-jet flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 75–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. J. Scherer, “Combined cavity ringdown absorption and laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements of CN(B-X) and CH(B-X) in low-pressure CH4-O2-N2 and CH4-NO-O2-N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 126, 1725–1735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, K. T. Walsh, M. B. Long, M. D. Smooke, “CH(A-X) and OH(A-X) optical emission in an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 122, 172–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN concentration in flames by laser-induced saturated fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253–264 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, N. M. Laurendeau, “Comparison of saturated and linear laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in counterflow diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 117, 810–820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of hydroxyl concentration profiles using five laser-induced fluorescence methods in a lean subatmospheric-pressure H2/O2/Ar flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 63, 139–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Renfro, A. Chaturvedy, N. M. Laurendeau, “Semi-quantitative measurements of CH concentration in atmospheric-pressure counterflow diffusion flames using picosecond laser-induced fluorescence,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 25–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, “Comparison of turbulent diffusion flame measurements of OH by planar fluorescence and saturated fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 3, 283–292 (1985).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

Y. Takubo, H. Yano, H. Matsuoka, M. Shimazu, “Saturation behavior of laser-induced CH fluorescence in a propane-air flame,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 163–168 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. M. Harris, F. E. Lytle, “Measurement of subnanosecond fluorescence decays by sampled single-photon detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1469–1476 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 1987).

J. Luque, D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” Stanford Research Institute Report MP99–009 (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, D. F. Davidson, W. C. Gardiner, V. Lissianski, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, M. Frenklach, M. Goldenberg, GRI-Mech Home Page, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/ .

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, D. C. Fourgette, M. B. Long, “Joint planar CH and OH LIF imaging in piloted turbulent jet diffusion flames near extinction,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 341–349.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Mansour, N. Peters, Y. C. Chen, “Investigation of scalar mixing in the thin reaction zones regime using a simultaneous CH-LIF/Rayleigh laser technique,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 767–773.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, Chemkin Collection, Release 3.7 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 2002).

G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, M. Frenklach, N. W. Moriarty, B. Eiteneer, M. Goldenberg, C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, S. Song, W. C. Gardiner, V. V. Lissianski, Z. Qin, GRI-Mech Home Page, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/ .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Analysis used to estimate the maximum error in the collection of the LSF signal during a wide temporal gate. (a) Gaussian fit of laser intensity matched to the measured laser pulse of Renfro.25 (b) Estimated normalized laser intensity (dashed curve) and collected fluorescence signal (solid curve). Analysis shows that 95% of the fluorescence signal is generated when saturation conditions occur (shaded region), resulting in a 5% maximum error. I sat is 106 (W/cm2)cm-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup of CH LSF diagnostics. The CH measurement location is 7 mm above the flame base as shown in the cutout. The flame height is 28 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and simulated fluorescence spectra of the B 2∑–X 2Π band of the CH molecule. The emission was collected between 420 and 440 nm as the excitation wavelength varied. The Q 1 (7.5) transition (390.3 nm) was used for the experiment. Also shown is a simulation from the lifbase 29 code.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of fuel-equivalence ratio on relative CH signal, which equals the relative CH number density [Eq. (5)]. The experimental results are represented by filled symbols, the computational results obtained with premix 10 and GRI-mech 3.0 (Ref. 11) chemistry are represented by the open symbols. The results are normalized by the signal obtained at the standard condition (ϕ = 1.25 premixed methane-air flame). Each data point is the average of 1500 laser pulses. The standard deviation is 5% of the mean for the methane-air results and 7.0% of the mean for the propane-air results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the fuel-equivalence ratio on the relative CH signal that equals the relative CH number density [Eq. (5)]. The mole fraction of H2 added to the flame is (1 - X CH4 ). The results are normalized by the signal obtained at the standard condition (ϕ = 1.25 premixed methane-air flame). Each data point is the average of 1500 laser pulses. The standard deviation of the results is 7.5% of the mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the fuel-equivalence ratio on the relative CH signal and the relative number density for various hydrogen-enriched fuel combinations. The results for a given fuel combination are normalized by the ϕ = 1.25 measurement within each given fuel combination. Note that, as more hydrogen is added to the fuel, richer conditions provide the optimum conditions for CH fluorescence diagnostics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the hydrogen addition to methane on the suppression of soot precursors such as PAH in rich premixed flames. The fuel is methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) only. S CH is the actual CH fluorescence signal obtained from Eq. (9), and S PAH is the signal from the interfering soot precursor obtained from Eq. (10).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Creation Pathway for CH Involving OHa

Equations (12)

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Rp=n10B12IνA21A21+Q2111+Iν/Iν,sat,
Iν,sat= Q21+A21B121+g1/g2.
Rp=n10A211+g1/g2,
SflSfl,ref= CoptCopt,refCLCL,refnCHnCH,reffBTfBT,ref,
SflSfl,ref= nCHnCH,ref.
fBT= hcBνkT2J+1exp-hcBνJJ+1kT,
S390.3 nm=SCH+SPAH+Sdark,
S390.55nm=SPAH+Sdark.
SCH=S390.3nm-S390.55nm,
SPAH=S390.55nm-Sdark.
SPAHSCH=0.5 exp-2XH2.
tot2=opt2+CL2+2s+fB2,

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