P. R. Field, A. J. Heymsfield, “Aggregation and scaling of ice crystal size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 544–560 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. M. Kahnert, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Can simple particle shapes be used to model scalar optical properties of an ensemble of wavelength-sized particles with complex shapes?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 521–531 (2002).

D. L. Mitchell, “Effective diameter in radiation transfer: general definition, applications, and limitations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2330–2346 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, “Discrete dipole moment method for calculation of the T-matrix for nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 881–893 (2002).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

F. M. Kahnert, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Application of the extended boundary condition method to homogeneous particles with paint-group symmetries,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3110–3123 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, “Constraints on PSC particle microphysics derived from lidar observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 817–831 (2001).

[CrossRef]

N. T. Zakharova, M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465–471 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “A scattering phase function for ice cloud: tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2395–2416 (2001).

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2151 (2001).

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, “Extension of T-matrix to scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by non-axisymmetric dielectric particles: application to hexagonal ice cylinders,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 139–158 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, K. Wyser, D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4699–4718 (2000).

[CrossRef]

J. E. Kristjánsson, J. M. Edwards, D. L. Mitchell, “The impact of a new scheme for the optical properties of ice crystals on the climate of two GCMs,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10063–10079 (2000).

[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, P. F. Soulen, K. I. Strabala, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, P. Yang, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS airborne simulator imagery during SUCCESS 2. Cloud thermodynamic phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11781–11792 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, B. C. Gao, “Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3727–3737 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, “Comparison of electromagnetic theory and various approximations for computing the absorption efficiency and single-scattering albedo of hexagonal columns,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5560–5568 (2000).

[CrossRef]

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, J. J. Stamnes, “Shape dependence of the optical properties in size-shape distributions of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, including highly elongated shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9413–9421 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. J. Brown, J. S. Foot, D. L. Mitchell, “Retrieval of tropical cirrus thermal optical depth, crystal size, and shape using a dual-view instrument at 3.7 and 11.0 μm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 92–110 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).

[CrossRef]

T. Wriedt, A. Doicu, “Formulations of the EBCM for three-dimensional scattering using the method of discrete sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 199–213 (1998).

[CrossRef]

T. Rother, “Generalization of the separation of variables method for nonspherical scattering on dielectric objects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 335–353 (1998).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “The definition and significance of an effective radius for ice clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2039–2052 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, P. Yang, W. B. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 11, 2223–2237 (1998).

[CrossRef]

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 9, 2058–2082 (1996).

[CrossRef]

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “Microphysical characteristics of three anvils sampled during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2401–2423 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size-shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 623–625 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size-shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 623–625 (1993).

[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, C. P. McKay, T. P. Ackerman, “Rapid calculations of radiative heating rates and photodissociation rates in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16287–16301 (1989).

[CrossRef]

H. M. Nussenzveig, W. J. Wiscombe, “Efficiency factors in Mie scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1490–1493 (1980).

[CrossRef]

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Auer, D. L. Veal, “The dimensions of ice crystals in natural clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919–926 (1970).

[CrossRef]

F. D. Bryant, P. Latimer, “Optical efficiencies of large particles of arbitrary shape and orientation,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 291–304 (1969).

[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, P. F. Soulen, K. I. Strabala, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, P. Yang, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS airborne simulator imagery during SUCCESS 2. Cloud thermodynamic phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11781–11792 (2000).

[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, C. P. McKay, T. P. Ackerman, “Rapid calculations of radiative heating rates and photodissociation rates in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16287–16301 (1989).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Auer, D. L. Veal, “The dimensions of ice crystals in natural clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919–926 (1970).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “A scattering phase function for ice cloud: tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2395–2416 (2001).

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, “Extension of T-matrix to scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by non-axisymmetric dielectric particles: application to hexagonal ice cylinders,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 139–158 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, “Comparison of electromagnetic theory and various approximations for computing the absorption efficiency and single-scattering albedo of hexagonal columns,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5560–5568 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. J. Brown, J. S. Foot, D. L. Mitchell, “Retrieval of tropical cirrus thermal optical depth, crystal size, and shape using a dual-view instrument at 3.7 and 11.0 μm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 92–110 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, J. M. Edwards, “Implementation of the T-matrix method on a massively parallel machine: a comparison of hexagonal ice cylinder single-scattering properties using the T-matrix and improved geometric optics methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

P. D. Watts, C. T. Mutlow, A. J. Baran, A. M. Zavody, “Study on cloud properties derived from Meteosat Second Generation Observations,” document EUMETSAT ITT 97/181 (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1998).

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, S. Havemann, “Simulation of scattering from ice aggregates using size/shape distributions of circular ice cylinders: an application of T-matrix,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurement, and Applications, B. Gustafson, L. Kolokolova, G. Videen, eds. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Md., 2002), pp. 25–28.

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2151 (2001).

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, P. F. Soulen, K. I. Strabala, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, P. Yang, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS airborne simulator imagery during SUCCESS 2. Cloud thermodynamic phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11781–11792 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. J. Brown, J. S. Foot, D. L. Mitchell, “Retrieval of tropical cirrus thermal optical depth, crystal size, and shape using a dual-view instrument at 3.7 and 11.0 μm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 92–110 (1999).

[CrossRef]

F. D. Bryant, P. Latimer, “Optical efficiencies of large particles of arbitrary shape and orientation,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 291–304 (1969).

[CrossRef]

T. Wriedt, A. Doicu, “Formulations of the EBCM for three-dimensional scattering using the method of discrete sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 199–213 (1998).

[CrossRef]

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “A scattering phase function for ice cloud: tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2395–2416 (2001).

J. E. Kristjánsson, J. M. Edwards, D. L. Mitchell, “The impact of a new scheme for the optical properties of ice crystals on the climate of two GCMs,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10063–10079 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, J. M. Edwards, “Implementation of the T-matrix method on a massively parallel machine: a comparison of hexagonal ice cylinder single-scattering properties using the T-matrix and improved geometric optics methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

P. R. Field, A. J. Heymsfield, “Aggregation and scaling of ice crystal size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 544–560 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. J. Brown, J. S. Foot, D. L. Mitchell, “Retrieval of tropical cirrus thermal optical depth, crystal size, and shape using a dual-view instrument at 3.7 and 11.0 μm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 92–110 (1999).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Foot, “Some observations of the optical properties of clouds. II. Cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 145–164 (1988).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “A scattering phase function for ice cloud: tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2395–2416 (2001).

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, S. Havemann, “Simulation of scattering from ice aggregates using size/shape distributions of circular ice cylinders: an application of T-matrix,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurement, and Applications, B. Gustafson, L. Kolokolova, G. Videen, eds. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Md., 2002), pp. 25–28.

Q. Fu, P. Yang, W. B. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 11, 2223–2237 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 9, 2058–2082 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, “Extension of T-matrix to scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by non-axisymmetric dielectric particles: application to hexagonal ice cylinders,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 139–158 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, “Comparison of electromagnetic theory and various approximations for computing the absorption efficiency and single-scattering albedo of hexagonal columns,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5560–5568 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, S. Havemann, “Simulation of scattering from ice aggregates using size/shape distributions of circular ice cylinders: an application of T-matrix,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurement, and Applications, B. Gustafson, L. Kolokolova, G. Videen, eds. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Md., 2002), pp. 25–28.

S. Havemann, A. J. Baran, J. M. Edwards, “Implementation of the T-matrix method on a massively parallel machine: a comparison of hexagonal ice cylinder single-scattering properties using the T-matrix and improved geometric optics methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. R. Field, A. J. Heymsfield, “Aggregation and scaling of ice crystal size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 544–560 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “The definition and significance of an effective radius for ice clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2039–2052 (1998).

[CrossRef]

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “Microphysical characteristics of three anvils sampled during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2401–2423 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2151 (2001).

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, P. F. Soulen, K. I. Strabala, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, P. Yang, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS airborne simulator imagery during SUCCESS 2. Cloud thermodynamic phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11781–11792 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2151 (2001).

J. E. Kristjánsson, J. M. Edwards, D. L. Mitchell, “The impact of a new scheme for the optical properties of ice crystals on the climate of two GCMs,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10063–10079 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, L. C. Labonnote, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “A scattering phase function for ice cloud: tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2395–2416 (2001).

F. D. Bryant, P. Latimer, “Optical efficiencies of large particles of arbitrary shape and orientation,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 291–304 (1969).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, B. C. Gao, “Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3727–3737 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, K. Wyser, D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4699–4718 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980), p. 192.

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, “Constraints on PSC particle microphysics derived from lidar observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 817–831 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2151 (2001).

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “The definition and significance of an effective radius for ice clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2039–2052 (1998).

[CrossRef]

G. M. McFarquhar, A. J. Heymsfield, “Microphysical characteristics of three anvils sampled during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2401–2423 (1996).

[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, C. P. McKay, T. P. Ackerman, “Rapid calculations of radiative heating rates and photodissociation rates in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16287–16301 (1989).

[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, P. F. Soulen, K. I. Strabala, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, P. Yang, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS airborne simulator imagery during SUCCESS 2. Cloud thermodynamic phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11781–11792 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, “Constraints on PSC particle microphysics derived from lidar observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 817–831 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

N. T. Zakharova, M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465–471 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, B. C. Gao, “Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3727–3737 (2000).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size-shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 623–625 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size-shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 623–625 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by randomly oriented axially symmetric particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871–882 (1991).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Mitchell, “Effective diameter in radiation transfer: general definition, applications, and limitations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2330–2346 (2002).

[CrossRef]

J. E. Kristjánsson, J. M. Edwards, D. L. Mitchell, “The impact of a new scheme for the optical properties of ice crystals on the climate of two GCMs,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10063–10079 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, K. Wyser, D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4699–4718 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. J. Brown, J. S. Foot, D. L. Mitchell, “Retrieval of tropical cirrus thermal optical depth, crystal size, and shape using a dual-view instrument at 3.7 and 11.0 μm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 92–110 (1999).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, A. Mugnai, “Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. 2. Means of angular scattering patterns,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2405–2421 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Mugnai, W. J. Wiscombe, “Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. 1. Cross-sections, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and backscattered fraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1235–1244 (1986).

[CrossRef]

P. D. Watts, C. T. Mutlow, A. J. Baran, A. M. Zavody, “Study on cloud properties derived from Meteosat Second Generation Observations,” document EUMETSAT ITT 97/181 (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt, Germany, 1998).

P. Yang, B.-C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Asymptotic solutions of optical properties of large particles with strong absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1532–1547 (2001).

[CrossRef]

H. M. Nussenzveig, W. J. Wiscombe, “Efficiency factors in Mie scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1490–1493 (1980).

[CrossRef]

T. Rother, “Generalization of the separation of variables method for nonspherical scattering on dielectric objects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 335–353 (1998).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

F. M. Schulz, K. Stamnes, J. J. Stamnes, “Shape dependence of the optical properties in size-shape distributions of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, including highly elongated shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9413–9421 (1999).

[CrossRef]

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Donner, C. J. Seman, B. J. Soden, R. S. Hemler, J. C. Warren, J. Strom, K. N. Liou, “Large-scale ice clouds in the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21745–21768 (1997).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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