Abstract

We present measurements of the slope efficiency and the pump power at threshold for a number of Tm3+-doped silica double-clad fiber lasers that incorporate fibers that have a range of Tm3+ concentrations. We obtain a slope efficiency for the ∼2-μm 3 H 43 H 6 laser transition that is greater than the Stokes efficiency limit for a Tm3+ concentration as low as 1.3 wt. %. These results indicate that the cross relaxation process, 3 F 4, 3 H 63 H 4, 3 H 4, has a significant effect on the efficiency of the laser despite the relatively short lifetime of the 3 F 4 energy level. Energy migration of the excitation at the 3 F 4 level through the process 3 F 4, 3 H 63 H 6, 3 F 4 may be enhancing the cross-relaxation mechanism. We also show the importance of reducing the level of clustering of the Tm3+ ion when it is doped into silica by use of appropriate amounts of Al3+ codopant. For Tm3+ concentrations of >1 wt. %, Al3+/Tm3+ concentration ratios of >10 are recommended for reducing scattering losses, quenching the 3 H 4 lifetime, or both.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “High-power diode-cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1462–1464 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Xu, M. Prabhu, J. Lu, K. Ueda, D. Xing, “Efficient double-clad thulium-doped fiber laser with a ring cavity,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1983–1988 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, “Efficient, broadly tunable, laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. M. Suni, S. W. Henderson, “1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 817–819 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. S. Lai, P. B. Phua, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, S. W. Toh, B. T. Toh, A. Chang, “120-W continuous-wave diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1591–1593 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Doya, O. Legrand, F. Mortessagne, “Optimized absorption in a chaotic double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 872–874 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 948–956 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, “Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of energy transfer between Tm3+ ions in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 024207 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178–2188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, “Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of energy transfer between Tm3+ ions in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 024207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Suni, S. W. Henderson, “1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 817–819 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, “Efficient, broadly tunable, laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, “Spectroscopic schemes for excitation of laser transitions having a high quantum efficiency of the pumping bands,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 48, 124–129 (1984).

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Antipenko, “Spectroscopic schemes for excitation of laser transitions having a high quantum efficiency of the pumping bands,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 48, 124–129 (1984).

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, A.

Clarkson, W. A.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craig, S. P.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cusso, F.

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Sousa, D. F.

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, “Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of energy transfer between Tm3+ ions in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 024207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doya, V.

Duczynski, E. W.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dumbravyanu, R. V.

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glebov, A. S.

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, R. A.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Hernandes, A. C.

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

King, T. A.

Kumata, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. S.

Lau, E.

Lebullenger, R.

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, O.

Lim, Y. L.

Lincoln, J. R.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Lumma, D.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, S. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mortessagne, F.

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. A. O.

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, “Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of energy transfer between Tm3+ ions in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 024207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A.

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phua, P. B.

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, M.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, B. P.

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Speth, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, R. C.

Sugita, E.

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suni, P. J. M.

Sutton, S. B.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swain, N. A.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Teichmann, H. O.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toh, B. T.

Toh, S. W.

Townsend, J. E.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P. W.

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Uvarova, T. V.

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wakefield, B.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. F.

Xing, D.

Xu, J.

Yamada, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. W. Duczynski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Cw double cross pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+-doped garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. (1)

B. M. Antipenko, “Spectroscopic schemes for excitation of laser transitions having a high quantum efficiency of the pumping bands,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 48, 124–129 (1984).

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, D. C. Hanna, “Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 711–712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “High-efficiency cw thulium-sensitised holmium-doped fluoride fibre laser operating at 2.04 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1513–1515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, N. A. Swain, T. A. King, “Thulium sensitised holmium-doped cw fluoride fibre laser of high efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2231–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, “Laser pumping of Ho-, Tm-, Er-doped garnet lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920–923 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, M. Horiguchi, E. Sugita, “Concentration effect on optical amplification characteristics of Er-doped silica single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 43–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, “Aluminium or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, B. Thompson, “Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472–4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

J. R. Lincoln, W. S. Brocklesby, F. Cusso, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, A. Pearson, “Time resolved and site selective spectroscopy of thulium doped into germano- and alumino-silicate optical fibres and preforms,” J. Lumin. 50, 297–308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Colloq. (1)

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, P. Mitzscherlich, H. O. Teichmann, D. Lumma, “Room-temperature 2-μm Ho:YAG and 3-μm Er:YAG lasers,” J. Phys. Colloq. 48, C7/347–349 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, S. T. Davey, B. Wakefield, “The fabrication, assessment and optical properties of high-concentration Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica-based fibres,” Mater. Lett. 6, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. F. de Sousa, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, L. A. O. Nunes, “Evidence of higher-order mechanisms than dipole-dipole interaction in Tm3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 094204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, “Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of energy transfer between Tm3+ ions in fluoroindogallate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 024207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. M. Antipenko, A. S. Glebov, R. V. Dumbravyanu, B. P. Sobolev, T. V. Uvarova, “Spectroscopy and lasing characteristics of BaEr2F8:Tm:Ho crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 424–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the energy-level scheme for Tm3+-doped silica. Included in the diagram are the pump transition, the laser transition, and the cross-relaxation process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used to characterize the fiber lasers. An f = 30 mm lens was used to focus the pump light into the pump cladding of the fiber, and an f = 40 mm lens was used to collimate the ∼2-μm fiber laser output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of the slope efficiency for fibers 1, 3, and 4 as a function of Lα eff, where L is the length of fiber and αeff is the effective absorption coefficient of the fiber. Inset, change in maximum slope efficiency with variation in the Tm3+ concentration level.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements of the launched pump power at threshold for fibers 1, 3, and 4 as a function of Lα eff, where L is the length of fiber and αeff is the effective absorption coefficient of the fiber. Inset, change in minimum pump power at threshold with variation in the Tm3+ concentration level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured output power from a number of fiber lasers that use fibers 1, 3, and 4 only, as a function of launched pump power for fiber lengths that correspond to the largest slope efficiency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Specifications and Manufacturers of the Fibers Used in the Experiments

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

αeff=αcore×AcoreAcladding,
Acladding=12 r22π-2 cos-1sr + sin2 cos-1sr,
αcore=N0  σTmλPλdλ Pλdλ=N0×σabs,

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