Abstract

Variations of sediment type (grain size and refractive index) and changing illumination conditions affect the reflectance signal of coastal waters and limit the accuracy of sediment-concentration estimations from remote-sensing measurements. These effects are analyzed from numerous in situ remote-sensing measurements carried out in the Gironde and Loire Estuaries and then reduced and partly eliminated when reflectance ratios between the near infrared and the visible are considered. These ratios showed high correlation with the sediment concentration. On the basis of the obtained relationships, performing correspondence functions were established that allow an accurate estimation of suspended sediments in the estuaries from Système Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre, Landsat, and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor data, independently of the date of acquisition.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Douillet, S. Ouillon, E. Cordier, “A numerical model for fine suspended sediment transport in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs, 20, 361–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, M. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Ce 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, P. Forget, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro river mouth area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P. Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Siegel, M. Gerth, A. Mutzke, “Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling,” Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1143–1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite: application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2029–2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. G. Bowers, S. Boudjelas, G. E. L. Harker, “The distribution of fine sediments in the surface waters of the Irish Sea and its relation to tidal stirring,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2789–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Robinson, K. P. Morris, K. R. Dyer, “Deriving fluxes of suspended particulate matter in the Humber estuary, UK, using airborne remote sensing,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Irigoien, J. Castel, “Light limitation and distribution of chlorophyll pigments in a highly turbid estuary: the Gironde (SW France),” Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 44, 507–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

D. Antoine, A. Morel, J. M. André, “Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16193–16209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Eisma, A. Li, “Changes in suspended matter floc size during the tidal cycle in the Dollard Estuary,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 31, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependance on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

Abril, G.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allen, G. P.

P. Castaing, G. P. Allen, “Mechanisms of seaward escape of suspended sediment from the Gironde: a macro tidal estuary in France,” Mar. Geol. 40, 101–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Allen, G. Sauzay, P. Castaing, J. M. Jouanneau, “Transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the Gironde estuary, France,” in Estuarine Processes, M. Wilet, ed. (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 63–81.

André, J. M.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, J. M. André, “Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16193–16209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, J. M. André, “Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16193–16209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974), Ref. 74-10.

Bassoullet, P.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, P.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berthois, L.

L. Berthois, “Comportement du bouchon vaseux dans l’estuaire de la Loire,” in Proceedings of the 4èmes Journées de l’Hydraulique (La Houille Blanche, Paris, 1956), pp. 564–568.

Boudjelas, S.

D. G. Bowers, S. Boudjelas, G. E. L. Harker, “The distribution of fine sediments in the surface waters of the Irish Sea and its relation to tidal stirring,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2789–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boutier, B.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, D. G.

D. G. Bowers, S. Boudjelas, G. E. L. Harker, “The distribution of fine sediments in the surface waters of the Irish Sea and its relation to tidal stirring,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2789–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

Cadée, G. C.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite: application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2029–2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Castaing, G. P. Allen, “Mechanisms of seaward escape of suspended sediment from the Gironde: a macro tidal estuary in France,” Mar. Geol. 40, 101–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Allen, G. Sauzay, P. Castaing, J. M. Jouanneau, “Transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the Gironde estuary, France,” in Estuarine Processes, M. Wilet, ed. (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 63–81.

P. Castaing, “Le transfert à l’océan des suspensions estuariennes. Cas de la Gironde,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Bordeaux 1, France, 1981).

Castel, J.

X. Irigoien, J. Castel, “Light limitation and distribution of chlorophyll pigments in a highly turbid estuary: the Gironde (SW France),” Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 44, 507–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, E.

P. Douillet, S. Ouillon, E. Cordier, “A numerical model for fine suspended sediment transport in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs, 20, 361–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Degranpré, C.

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dilligeard, E.

E. Dilligeard, “Télédétection des eaux du cas II. Caractérisations des sédiments marins,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Littoral-Côte d’Opale, Lille, France, 1997).

Douillet, P.

P. Douillet, S. Ouillon, E. Cordier, “A numerical model for fine suspended sediment transport in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs, 20, 361–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Du Penhoat, Y.

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, K. R.

M. C. Robinson, K. P. Morris, K. R. Dyer, “Deriving fluxes of suspended particulate matter in the Humber estuary, UK, using airborne remote sensing,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisma, D.

D. Eisma, A. Li, “Changes in suspended matter floc size during the tidal cycle in the Dollard Estuary,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 31, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Etcheber, H.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Etcheber, “Biogéochimie de la matière organique en milieu estuarien: comportement, bilans, propriétés. Cas de la Gironde,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Bordeaux 1, France, 1983).

Forget, P.

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, P. Forget, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro river mouth area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

Frankignoulle, M.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Froidefond, J. M.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite: application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2029–2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Galenne, B.

B. Galenne, “Les accumulations turbides de l’estuaire de la Loire. Etude de la crème de vase,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Nantes, Nantes, France, 1974).

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gerth, M.

H. Siegel, M. Gerth, A. Mutzke, “Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling,” Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1143–1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gurganus, E. A.

Harker, G. E. L.

D. G. Bowers, S. Boudjelas, G. E. L. Harker, “The distribution of fine sediments in the surface waters of the Irish Sea and its relation to tidal stirring,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2789–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, W. M.

Irigoien, X.

X. Irigoien, J. Castel, “Light limitation and distribution of chlorophyll pigments in a highly turbid estuary: the Gironde (SW France),” Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 44, 507–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ittekkot, V.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, M. M.

Jouanneau, J. M.

G. P. Allen, G. Sauzay, P. Castaing, J. M. Jouanneau, “Transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the Gironde estuary, France,” in Estuarine Processes, M. Wilet, ed. (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 63–81.

J. M. Jouanneau, C. Latouche, “The Gironde Estuary,” in Contributions to Sedimentology, A. P. L. H. Fuchbauer, J. D. Milliman, E. Seibold, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 1–115.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kalf, J.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lahet, F.

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, P. Forget, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro river mouth area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahet, “Caractérisation optique d’eaux côtières méditerranéennes: mesure, modélisation et inversion des réflectances. Application aux observations satellitales,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Toulon, France, 1999).

Lanne, R.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Latouche, C.

J. M. Jouanneau, C. Latouche, “The Gironde Estuary,” in Contributions to Sedimentology, A. P. L. H. Fuchbauer, J. D. Milliman, E. Seibold, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 1–115.

Lavender, S. J.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Hir, P.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Le Hir, B. Thouvenin, “Mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment and particulate contaminants transport in the Loire estuary,” in Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries, K. R. Dyer, R. J. Orth, eds. (Olsen and Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, 1994), pp. 71–78.

Lecomte, P.

Li, A.

D. Eisma, A. Li, “Changes in suspended matter floc size during the tidal cycle in the Dollard Estuary,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 31, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, M. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Ce 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. M.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mirmand, M.

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Mook, W. G.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4861 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, J. M. André, “Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16193–16209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependance on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morel, M.

H. Loisel, M. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Ce 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morris, K. P.

M. C. Robinson, K. P. Morris, K. R. Dyer, “Deriving fluxes of suspended particulate matter in the Humber estuary, UK, using airborne remote sensing,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, W. D.

Mutzke, A.

H. Siegel, M. Gerth, A. Mutzke, “Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling,” Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1143–1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ouillon, S.

P. Douillet, S. Ouillon, E. Cordier, “A numerical model for fine suspended sediment transport in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs, 20, 361–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, P. Forget, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro river mouth area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prud’homme, R.

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite: application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2029–2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Put, A.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M. C.

M. C. Robinson, K. P. Morris, K. R. Dyer, “Deriving fluxes of suspended particulate matter in the Humber estuary, UK, using airborne remote sensing,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruch, P.

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, J. C.

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sauzay, G.

G. P. Allen, G. Sauzay, P. Castaing, J. M. Jouanneau, “Transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the Gironde estuary, France,” in Estuarine Processes, M. Wilet, ed. (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 63–81.

Schuhmacher, T.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, H.

H. Siegel, M. Gerth, A. Mutzke, “Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling,” Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1143–1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thouvenin, B.

P. Le Hir, B. Thouvenin, “Mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment and particulate contaminants transport in the Loire estuary,” in Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries, K. R. Dyer, R. J. Orth, eds. (Olsen and Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, 1994), pp. 71–78.

Usry, J. W.

Whitlock, C. H.

Witte, W. G.

Appl. Opt.

Cont. Shelf Res.

H. Siegel, M. Gerth, A. Mutzke, “Dynamics of the Oder river plume in the southern Baltic Sea: satellite data and numerical modelling,” Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1143–1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coral Reefs,

P. Douillet, S. Ouillon, E. Cordier, “A numerical model for fine suspended sediment transport in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs, 20, 361–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite: application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2029–2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci.

X. Irigoien, J. Castel, “Light limitation and distribution of chlorophyll pigments in a highly turbid estuary: the Gironde (SW France),” Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 44, 507–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Bowers, S. Boudjelas, G. E. L. Harker, “The distribution of fine sediments in the surface waters of the Irish Sea and its relation to tidal stirring,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2789–2805 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, M. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Ce 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, J. M. André, “Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16193–16209 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

G. Abril, H. Etcheber, P. Le Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, M. Frankignoulle, “Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1304–1315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geol.

P. Castaing, G. P. Allen, “Mechanisms of seaward escape of suspended sediment from the Gironde: a macro tidal estuary in France,” Mar. Geol. 40, 101–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Pollut. Bull.

M. C. Robinson, K. P. Morris, K. R. Dyer, “Deriving fluxes of suspended particulate matter in the Humber estuary, UK, using airborne remote sensing,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neth. J. Sea Res.

D. Eisma, P. Bernard, G. C. Cadée, V. Ittekkot, J. Kalf, R. Lanne, J. M. Martin, W. G. Mook, A. Put, T. Schuhmacher, “Suspended matter particle size in some West-European estuaries; part II: a review on floc formation and break up,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 28, 215–220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Eisma, A. Li, “Changes in suspended matter floc size during the tidal cycle in the Dollard Estuary,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 31, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, M. Mirmand, P. Ruch, “Analysis of the turbid plume of the Gironde (France) based on SPOT radiometric data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 149–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, P. Forget, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro river mouth area,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sediment. Geol.

G. P. Allen, J. C. Salomon, P. Bassoullet, Y. Du Penhoat, C. Degranpré, “Effects of tides on mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries,” Sediment. Geol. 26, 69–90 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Etcheber, “Biogéochimie de la matière organique en milieu estuarien: comportement, bilans, propriétés. Cas de la Gironde,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Bordeaux 1, France, 1983).

E. Dilligeard, “Télédétection des eaux du cas II. Caractérisations des sédiments marins,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Littoral-Côte d’Opale, Lille, France, 1997).

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974), Ref. 74-10.

F. Lahet, “Caractérisation optique d’eaux côtières méditerranéennes: mesure, modélisation et inversion des réflectances. Application aux observations satellitales,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Toulon, France, 1999).

J. M. Jouanneau, C. Latouche, “The Gironde Estuary,” in Contributions to Sedimentology, A. P. L. H. Fuchbauer, J. D. Milliman, E. Seibold, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), pp. 1–115.

G. P. Allen, G. Sauzay, P. Castaing, J. M. Jouanneau, “Transport and deposition of suspended sediment in the Gironde estuary, France,” in Estuarine Processes, M. Wilet, ed. (Academic, New York, 1976), pp. 63–81.

P. Castaing, “Le transfert à l’océan des suspensions estuariennes. Cas de la Gironde,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Bordeaux 1, France, 1981).

L. Berthois, “Comportement du bouchon vaseux dans l’estuaire de la Loire,” in Proceedings of the 4èmes Journées de l’Hydraulique (La Houille Blanche, Paris, 1956), pp. 564–568.

P. Le Hir, B. Thouvenin, “Mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment and particulate contaminants transport in the Loire estuary,” in Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries, K. R. Dyer, R. J. Orth, eds. (Olsen and Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, 1994), pp. 71–78.

B. Galenne, “Les accumulations turbides de l’estuaire de la Loire. Etude de la crème de vase,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Nantes, Nantes, France, 1974).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gironde Estuary, located in southwest France. Lines, main navigation channels; black circles, the four stations that took regular field measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loire Estuary, located in west France.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of typical in situ measured R rs spectra carried out for different SPM concentrations in the Gironde Estuary in (a) 1996 and 1997 and then in (b) 1999.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of typical in situ measured R rs spectra recorded in the Loire Estuary for different SPM concentrations: (a) on 28 February 2002 under a clear blue sky and (b) on 1 March 2002 under a thick overcast sky. (c) Comparison between R rs spectra recorded at equivalent SPM concentrations under a clear sky (thick curve) and under an overcast sky (thin curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Empirical relationships between R rsi in (b) and (d) SPOT bands and in (a), (c), and (e) Landsat bands and SPM concentration established from all measurements carried out in the Gironde Estuary in 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Empirical relationships between R rsi in (a) and (c) SPOT bands and in (b) and (d) SeaWiFS bands and SPM concentration established from measurements carried out in the Loire Estuary in February and March 2002 (black points) and in April 2002 (gray points), under a clear blue sky (diamonds) and under a thick overcast sky (circles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Empirical relationships between reflectance ratios in (b) SPOT bands and in (a) and (c) Landsat bands and SPM, established from all field measurements carried out in the Gironde Estuary from 1996 to 2001. Plot of the logarithmic regression between 10 and 2500 mg l-1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Empirical relationships between reflectance ratios in (a) SPOT bands and in (b) SeaWiFS bands and SPM concentration, established from field measurements carried out in 2002 in the Loire Estuary in February and March 2002 (black points) and in April 2002 (gray points), under a clear blue sky (diamonds) and under a thick overcast sky (circles).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Correspondence functions used to estimate SPM concentrations in the Gironde Estuary from reflectance ratios measurements in (a) SPOT bands [R rs(XS3)/R rs(XS1)] and (b) Landsat bands [R rs(L4)/R rs(L2)]. The best correlated function obtained for SPM concentration in the range (15–2500 mg l-1) is plotted on the graphs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Correspondence functions used to estimate SPM concentrations in the Loire Estuary from reflectance ratios measurements in (a) SPOT bands [R rs(XS3)/R rs(XS1)] and (b) SeaWiFS bands [R rs(855)/R rs(555)]. The best correlated function obtained for SPM concentration in the range [10–2600 mg l-1] is plotted on the graphs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Particle Grain-Size Distributions Measured in Surface Waters of the Loire Estuary in 2002 and of the Gironde Estuary (from 1996 to 2001)a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Percentage of the Total Measured Upwelling Radiance (L t ) That Is to Skylight Reflection, Expressed as the ρL s /L t Ratioa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R0-=Eu0-Ed0-.
R0-=f bba+bb,
Rrs=LwEd0+,
Rrs=0.529 fQbba+1-rfbb 0.529 fQbba+bb,
Rrs=RpLt-ρLsπLd.

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