Abstract

A wide-viewing integral three-dimensional (3D) imaging system that adopts orthogonal polarization switching is proposed and demonstrated. In our scheme, the polarizing sheet attached to the lens array and the orthogonal polarization switching of the elemental image array perform elemental lens switching. The experimental results document that the viewing angle becomes remarkably wider than that of the conventional method. The distinguishing feature of our system is that it requires no mechanical moving part. In addition, because a commercially available polarization shutter screen is used for electrical switching, it is easy to implement this as a practical system. We believe that the proposed method facilitates the practical use of this wide-viewing integral 3D imaging system.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-H. Shin, B. Javidi, “Viewing-angle enhancement of speckle-reduced volume holographic three-dimensional display by use of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5562–5567 (2001).
  13. B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).
  14. B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6875–6883 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

2000

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

1998

1997

1994

N. Davies, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1908

M. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Arai, J.

Brewin, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Davies, N.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, L.

Gabriel, K. J.

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Shin, B. Javidi, “Viewing-angle enhancement of speckle-reduced volume holographic three-dimensional display by use of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5562–5567 (2001).

Jung, S.

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6875–6883 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6875–6883 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, M.

M. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

McCormick, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

Park, J.-H.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6875–6883 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display using integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-H.

S.-H. Shin, B. Javidi, “Viewing-angle enhancement of speckle-reduced volume holographic three-dimensional display by use of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5562–5567 (2001).

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys.

M. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “A three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” J. Soc. 3D Broadcasting and Imaging 1, 78–82 (2000).

Opt. Eng.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Computer-generated dynamic three-dimensional display using integral photography adopting Fresnel lenses,” B. Javidi, D. Psaltis, eds., Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, Proc. SPIE4471, 9–17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Viewing-angle limitation of the integral imaging (LA: lens array).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Previous method11 to enhance the viewing angle by use of a lens switching with a mechanically moving mask.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed method to enhance the viewing angle by use of orthogonal polarization switching: (a) schematic diagram (top view), (b) experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generation of elemental image arrays for different polarization states.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Elemental image arrays of the proposed scheme. [In (a) and (b), the polarization state of each image set is modulated to be orthogonal to each other.]

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observed snapshot images from different viewpoints via the conventional method: (a) at the left-hand side 6 deg., (b) at the right-hand side 6 deg., (c) at the left-hand side 11 deg., (d) at the right-hand side 11 degrees, (e) at the left-hand side 17 deg., (f) at the right-hand side 17 deg.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observed snapshot images from different viewpoints via the proposed method: parameters are the same as in Fig. 6.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Equipment Specifications

Equations (1)

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θ=2 arctanw2g,

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