Abstract

Diffusers play an important role in liquid-crystal display (LCD) application as a beam-shaping device, a brightness homogenizer, a light-scattering device, and an imaging screen. The transmittance and diffusing angle of the diffusers are the critical aspects for the applications to the LCD. The holographic diffusers by use of various processing methods have been investigated. The diffusing characteristics of different diffusing materials and processing methods have been evaluated and compared. The microstructures of holographic diffusers have been investigated by use of using scanning electron microscopy. The holographic diffusers by use of the silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) method have the structural merits for the improvement of the quality of diffusers. The features of holographic diffuser were exceptional in terms of transmittance and diffusing angle. The replication method by use of the SHSG process can be directly used for the manufacturing of diffusers for the display application.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (1)

2001 (3)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. L. Churaev, D. I. Staselko, “Light scattering by silver halide holographic photomaterials, Light scattering functions of microcrystals and emulsion surface relief,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 61, 371–374 (1986).

1967 (1)

1962 (1)

E. N. Leith, “Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 6, 75–80 (1962).

Birenheide, R.

R. Birenheide, “The BB emulsion series: current standings and future developments,” in Sixth International/Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed. SPIE3358, 28–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjelkhagen, H.

H. Bjelkhagen, “New recording materials for holography,” Conference of Holography, Art and Design (Holography and Three-Dimensional Displays, London) (1998).

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

Cantalupo, J.

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ce, W.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry-developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed. in Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

Choi, B. S.

Choi, Y. S.

Churaev, A. L.

A. L. Churaev, D. I. Staselko, “Light scattering by silver halide holographic photomaterials, Light scattering functions of microcrystals and emulsion surface relief,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 61, 371–374 (1986).

Dai, F.

Escamilla, H. M.

Garcia-Guerrero, E. E.

Goodman, J. W.

Gu, C.

Hong, J.

Honkanen, M.

Kaikuranta, T.

Kim, J. M.

Kim, S. I.

Kuittinen, M.

Kumonko, P. I.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laakkaonen, P.

Lakes, R.

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lautanen, J.

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, “Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 6, 75–80 (1962).

Lerner, J.

J. Petterson, J. Lerner, “Homogenizer formed using coherent light and a holographic diffuser” U.S. Patent No. 5,534,386 (1996).

Leskova, T. A.

Lien, J.-R.

Maradudin, A. A.

Mendez, E. R.

Parikka, M.

Petterson, J.

J. Petterson, J. Lerner, “Homogenizer formed using coherent light and a holographic diffuser” U.S. Patent No. 5,534,386 (1996).

Phillips, N.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry-developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed. in Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

Phillips, N. J.

Ratcliffe, D. B.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sazonov, Y. A.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. K.

Skokov, G. R.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staselko, D. I.

A. L. Churaev, D. I. Staselko, “Light scattering by silver halide holographic photomaterials, Light scattering functions of microcrystals and emulsion surface relief,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 61, 371–374 (1986).

Tervo, J.

Turunen, J.

Vorobyov, S. P.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wadle, S.

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, D.

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zacharovas, S. J.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Wadle, D. Wuest, J. Cantalupo, R. Lakes, “Holographic diffusers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 213–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

A. L. Churaev, D. I. Staselko, “Light scattering by silver halide holographic photomaterials, Light scattering functions of microcrystals and emulsion surface relief,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 61, 371–374 (1986).

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

E. N. Leith, “Photographic film as an element of a coherent optical system,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 6, 75–80 (1962).

Other (7)

Physical Optics Corporation, Corporate Offices, Holographic Products & Engineering & Products Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 103, Torrance, CA 90501-1821.

J. Petterson, J. Lerner, “Homogenizer formed using coherent light and a holographic diffuser” U.S. Patent No. 5,534,386 (1996).

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry-developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed. in Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

H. Bjelkhagen, “New recording materials for holography,” Conference of Holography, Art and Design (Holography and Three-Dimensional Displays, London) (1998).

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobyov, P. I. Kumonko, Y. A. Sazonov, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., in Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Birenheide, “The BB emulsion series: current standings and future developments,” in Sixth International/Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed. SPIE3358, 28–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

The website of the POC company: www.poc.com/hgram/index.htm

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical back illuminator for transmission-type LCD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup to measure the diffusing angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffusing characteristics of various diffusers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical arrangement for the holographic diffusers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffusing characteristic of a holographic diffuser on various materials: (a) Photopolymer, (b) silver halide emulsion, (c) silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scattering characteristics of various diffusers: (a) Horizontal scattering characteristics, (b) vertical scattering characteristics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change in diffusing characteristic after the application of index matching fluid on the diffuser surface: (a) Before the application of Decalin, (b) after the application of Decalin.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simple optical arrangement for the diffusivity test.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SEM photograph (surface) of SHSG-processed holographic diffuser: (a) Lower magnification (2000×), (b) higher magnification (5000×).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison between a POC and a SHSG diffuser: (a) POC diffuser (see Ref. 5) (15,000×) (b) holographic diffuser by use of the SHSG method (10,000×).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cross-sectional microstructure of a SHSG diffuser.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Scattering characteristics of holographic diffusers processed with the SHSG method: (a) Horizontal-scattering characteristic, (b) vertical-scattering characteristic.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SHSG Processing Steps

Tables Icon

Table 2 Typical Samples Prepared With Various Source Diffusers and Processing Methods

Tables Icon

Table 3 Typical Results of Experiments with Variable Spacing and Exposure Energy

Equations (1)

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θ=2 tan-1xL,

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