Abstract

Design and implementation of a free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications is presented. The system is designed to interconnect four multiprocessor nodes that communicate by using multiplexed 32-bit packets. Each multiprocessor node is electrically connected to an optoelectronic VLSI chip which implements the hyperplane interconnection architecture. The chips each contain 256 optical transmitters (implemented as dual-rail multiple quantum-well modulators) and 256 optical receivers. A rigid free-space microoptical interconnection system that interconnects the transceiver chips in a 512-channel unidirectional ring is implemented. Full design, implementation, and operational details are provided.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (4)

2000 (11)

A. F. J. Levi, “Optical interconnects in systems,” Proc. IEEE 88, 750–757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electrical chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Collet, D. Litaize, J. Van Campenhout, C. Jesshope, M. Desmulliez, H. Thienpont, J. Goodman, A. Louri, “Architectural approach of the role of optics in monoprocessor and multiprocessor machines,” Appl. Opt. 39, 671–682 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Maj, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, J. F. Ahadian, C. G. Fonstad, K. L. Lear, K. Tatah, M. S. Robinson, J. A. Trezza, “Interconnection of a two-dimensional array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers to a receiver array by means of a fiber image guide,” Appl. Opt. 39, 683–689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, P. Derr, R. Hofmann, B. Greiner, M. Robinson, “Demonstration of a multichannel optical interconnection by use of imaging fiber bundles butt coupled to optoelectronic circuits,” Appl. Opt. 39, 698–703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D.-F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, “Bandwidth optimization of optical datalinks using error control codes,” Appl. Opt.1761–1775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, E. Schenfeld, “Free-space optical relay for the interconnection of multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2297–2300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (3)

D. T. Neilson, “Optimization and tolerance analysis of QCSE modulators and detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1094–1103 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Firehose architectures for free-space optically interconnected VLSI circuits,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing 41, 109–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 35, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

1994 (2)

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Novel analog self-electro-optic-effect devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 678–698 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 6471–6480 (1992).

1991 (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Abdelrahman, T.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Ahadian, J. F.

Ahearn, J. D.

Ahearn, J. S.

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

Alleyne, C.

C. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, “Transmission uniformity of diffractive parallel optical interconnect relays: A numerical analysis based on rigorous coupled wave theory,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 2, 901–902 (2002).

Ayliffe, M. H.

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. P.

Bartelt, H.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baukens, V.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Beckman, M. G.

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, E.

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation and characterisation of a four stage hybrid optical system for a free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 35, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D.-F.

Brown, S.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Brunfaut, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caranci, S.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Chandramani, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, W. Luo, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, “Assembly and characterization of a folded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Proc. Intl. Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, Vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, 328–330 (2002).

Chen, C.-H.

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
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M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

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J. A. B. Dines, D. T. Nelson, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, “A comparison of massively parallel interconnect topologies employing optical highways,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 186–188.

Ekman, J.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Erkman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Esener, S.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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Esener, S. C.

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
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J. Faucher, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Application of parallel forward error correction in two-dimensional optical data links,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published) (2003).

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

Feldman, M. R.

Fey, D.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Fokken, G. J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Gamsa, B.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Georgakilas, A.

Gilbert, B. K.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Goodman, J.

Goossen, K. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Grbic, A.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Greiner, B.

Grimm, G.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Gruber, M.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Guest, C. G.

Gusat, M.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Halkias, G.

Haney, M. W.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Hanney, M.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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Haralabidis, N.

Hermanne, A.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
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T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
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D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
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H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1648 (1994).
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F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 6471–6480 (1992).

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Hlayhel, W.

Ho, R.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Hoanca, B.

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
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Hofmann, R.

Hoppe, L.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Hui, S. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Iyer, R.

Jahns, J.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
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Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Jesshope, C.

Kasahara, K.

Kawai, S.

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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Kirk, A. G.

F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
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M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, W. Luo, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
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D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
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M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1599 (2001).
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D.-F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
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T. Maj, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, J. F. Ahadian, C. G. Fonstad, K. L. Lear, K. Tatah, M. S. Robinson, J. A. Trezza, “Interconnection of a two-dimensional array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers to a receiver array by means of a fiber image guide,” Appl. Opt. 39, 683–689 (2000).
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C. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, “Transmission uniformity of diffractive parallel optical interconnect relays: A numerical analysis based on rigorous coupled wave theory,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 2, 901–902 (2002).

A. G. Kirk, F. Lacroix, F. Mathieu, F. Tooley, “Demonstration of a free-space optical broadcast network,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 165–167.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, “Assembly and characterization of a folded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Proc. Intl. Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, Vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, 328–330 (2002).

Kosaka, H.

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, O.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. B. Miller, “Firehose architectures for free-space optically interconnected VLSI circuits,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing 41, 109–114 (1997).
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Kuo, J.-M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuznia, C. B.

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
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Kyriakis-Bitzaros, E. D.

Lacroix, F.

Lacroix, F. K.

F. K. Lacroix, “Design, analysis and implementation of free-space optical interconnects,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 2001).

Lagadas, M.

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faucher, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Application of parallel forward error correction in two-dimensional optical data links,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published) (2003).

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

Laprise, P.-O.

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

Lear, K. L.

Lee, S. H.

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Liu, Y.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 35, 9253–9260 (1997).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation and characterisation of a four stage hybrid optical system for a free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
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Maj, T.

Manjikian, N.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

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H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1648 (1994).
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F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 6471–6480 (1992).

McHardy, P.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

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C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

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Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Nelson, D. T.

J. A. B. Dines, D. T. Nelson, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, “A comparison of massively parallel interconnect topologies employing optical highways,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 186–188.

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
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C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Ottevaere, H.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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F. Lacroix, E. Bernier, M. H. Ayliffe, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Implementation of a compact, four-stage, scalable optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1541–1555 (2002).
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M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, J. D. Ahearn, W. Luo, “512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5552–5561 (2002).
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D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
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M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1599 (2001).
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D.-F. Brosseau, F. Lacroix, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, B. Robertson, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a kinematically aligned, cascaded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Appl. Opt. 39, 733–745 (2000).
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T. Maj, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, J. F. Ahadian, C. G. Fonstad, K. L. Lear, K. Tatah, M. S. Robinson, J. A. Trezza, “Interconnection of a two-dimensional array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers to a receiver array by means of a fiber image guide,” Appl. Opt. 39, 683–689 (2000).
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Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation and characterisation of a four stage hybrid optical system for a free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
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B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 35, 9253–9260 (1997).
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Rieve, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Rolston, D. R.

M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, D. R. Rolston, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1599 (2001).
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D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
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Sasian, J. M.

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
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F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 6471–6480 (1992).

Sawchuk, A. A.

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
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Sinzinger, S.

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Snowdon, J. F.

J. A. B. Dines, D. T. Nelson, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, “A comparison of massively parallel interconnect topologies employing optical highways,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 186–188.

Spaanenburg, H.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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Srbljic, S.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Stumm, M.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

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Taghizadeh, M. R.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 35, 9253–9260 (1997).
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Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Tatah, K.

Thienpont, H.

J. H. Collet, D. Litaize, J. Van Campenhout, C. Jesshope, M. Desmulliez, H. Thienpont, J. Goodman, A. Louri, “Architectural approach of the role of optics in monoprocessor and multiprocessor machines,” Appl. Opt. 39, 671–682 (2000).
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H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Thomas-Dupuis, F.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, “Assembly and characterization of a folded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Proc. Intl. Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, Vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, 328–330 (2002).

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Tooley, F. A. P.

Trezza, J. A.

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Tuteleers, P.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Tyan, V.

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control for a terabit free-space optical backplane,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.838–846 (1999).

Van Campenhout, J.

J. H. Collet, D. Litaize, J. Van Campenhout, C. Jesshope, M. Desmulliez, H. Thienpont, J. Goodman, A. Louri, “Architectural approach of the role of optics in monoprocessor and multiprocessor machines,” Appl. Opt. 39, 671–682 (2000).
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C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Venditti, M. B.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. D. Ahearn, “A 256 Channel Bi-Directional Optical Interconnect Using VCSELs and Photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faucher, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Application of parallel forward error correction in two-dimensional optical data links,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published) (2003).

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

Verschaffelt, G.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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Vervacke, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

Vickberg, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christianson, F. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Erkman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the fast-net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Volckaerts, B.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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Vranesic, Z.

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

Vynck, P.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88, 769–779 (2000).
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Wang, X.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

J. A. B. Dines, D. T. Nelson, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, “A comparison of massively parallel interconnect topologies employing optical highways,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 186–188.

Wickman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, M. J.

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-M.

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Zilic, Z.

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IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, B. Hoanca, C. B. Kuznia, A. A. Sawchuk, J.-M. Wu, “TRANslucent smart pixel array (TRANSPAR) chips for high throughput networks and SIMD signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 316–329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibb-Brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Other (14)

R. Grindley, T. Abdelrahman, S. Brown, S. Caranci, D. DeVries, B. Gamsa, A. Grbic, M. Gusat, R. Ho, O. Krieger, G. Lemieux, K. Loveless, N. Manjikian, P. McHardy, S. Srbljic, M. Stumm, Z. Vranesic, Z. Zilic, “The NUMAchine multiprocessor,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE Computer Society), 487–496 (2000).

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M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. S. Ahearn, D. V. Plant, “Design and verification of an OE-VLSI chip with 1080 VCSELs and PDs heterogeneously integrated with CMOS,” Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting, PD-1.4. (2001).

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F. K. Lacroix, “Design, analysis and implementation of free-space optical interconnects,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 2001).

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat ‘plug-on-top’ optics package,” Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. V. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, F. Lacroix, F. Mathieu, F. Tooley, “Demonstration of a free-space optical broadcast network,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 165–167.

J. A. B. Dines, D. T. Nelson, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, “A comparison of massively parallel interconnect topologies employing optical highways,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8, 1997OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 186–188.

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control for a terabit free-space optical backplane,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.838–846 (1999).

M. H. Ayliffe, “Alignment and packaging techniques for two-dimensional free-space optical interconnects,” Ph.D. dissertation (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 2001).

C. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, “Transmission uniformity of diffractive parallel optical interconnect relays: A numerical analysis based on rigorous coupled wave theory,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 2, 901–902 (2002).

J. Faucher, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Application of parallel forward error correction in two-dimensional optical data links,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published) (2003).

C. Debaes, M. Vervacke, H. Onevaere, W. Meeus, P. Tuteleers, M. Brunfaut, V. Baukens, J. Van Campenhout, H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of manufacturable free-space modules for multichannel intra-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. 15th IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Vol 1, 63–64 (2002).

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, “Assembly and characterization of a folded spot array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect,” Proc. Intl. Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, Vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, 328–330 (2002).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical backplane system with two out of four chip modules inserted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NUMAchine architecture showing the hierarchical ring structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of a multihop optical ring interconnection. Each node is either a processor or a memory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of optical backplane ring interconnect.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representation of the electrical and optical data paths showing the transmission of data from station #1 to station #3 on logical channel #2, with bypass through OE-VLSI chip #2. Note that all OE-VLSI chips contain both transmitters (T) and receivers (R), but are not all are shown here.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The layout of the optoelectronic chip (FZP: Fresnel zone plate).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MQW modulator layer structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MQW modulator prior to flip-chip attachment to the CMOS chip.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of a transceiver circuit.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spatial relationship between the optoelectronic chips and the message processor board.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Flattened layout of optical relay between 2 stages (PMG, patterned mirror-grating; T, transmitter (modulator); R, receiver; QWP, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter). Note that the relay module contains an 8 × 8 minilens array, rather than 4 × 4 as shown here.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Drawing showing exploded three-dimensional view of backplane. (A, optical power supply; B, Risley prisms; C, relay module; D, beam combination module; E, corner prism; F, OE-VLSI chip module; G, hardened steel rod; H, adjustment screw; I, baseplate).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optoelectronic chip package module showing minilens array, TE cooler fins, and flexible printed circuit board.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

MQW reflectivity curve as a function of the applied voltage.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Assembled optical system with a pencil for scale.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Repeatability data for 30 insertion/removal cycles of the kinematic chip module.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spot array at the receiver plane after transmission through the optical system (a), detail of spot cluster at the modulator plane before transmission (b), detail of spot cluster after transmission (c).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Total relative power for a cluster of spots at the receiver array.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Optoelectronic chip test results: (a) add mode (optical output from electrical input), (b) drop mode (electrical output from optical input).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Target Values for System Parameters

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