Abstract

A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

A. G. Peele, “Deconvolution of an extended object viewed by a lobster-eye telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 459, 354–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 µm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, P. N. Jelinsky, J. M. Stock, “Electronic and optical moiré interference with microchannel plates: artifacts and benefits,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2240–2248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, “Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268–1273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Kaaret, P. Geissbühler, A. Chen, E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7339–7343 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray focusing using square channel-capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245, 46–55 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239, 88–99 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. Vogt, “Zur Optik des FluSSkrebsauges,” Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 691 (1975).

Bannister, N. P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bavdaz, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Black, K.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borozdin, K. N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boutot, J.-P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brumby, S. P.

T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE4145, 209–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 µm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray focusing using square channel-capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

P. Kaaret, P. Geissbühler, A. Chen, E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7339–7343 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deines-Jones, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckersley, S.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, A. C.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fairbend, R.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feller, W. B.

A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 µm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, (1992).

Flyckt, E.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flyckt, S. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 µm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, I. C. E. Turcu “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
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Geissbühler, P.

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P. Kaaret, P. Geissbühler, A. Chen, E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7339–7343 (1992).
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Gummin, M. A.

Herrmann, C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE4145, 209–218 (2001).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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P. Kaaret, P. Geissbühler, A. Chen, E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7339–7343 (1992).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
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Martin, A.

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
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McHardy, I. M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
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A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE4145, 209–218 (2001).
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O’Brian, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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Peacock, A. J.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE4145, 209–218 (2001).
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Petre, R.

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
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W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 416–422 (1998).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
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Richardson, M. C.

Rideout, R. M.

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
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Rockett, P.

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Rode, A. V.

Siegmund, O. H.

A. S. Tremsin, O. H. Siegmund, “Measurements of metric nonlinearities of MCP-based lobster-eye x-ray telescope optics by moiré interferometry,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 866–875 (1998).
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G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 416–422 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Souvorov, A.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, T. J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stock, J. M.

Strack, R.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, (1992).

Tomaselli, E

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, E.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tremsin, A. S.

A. S. Tremsin, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, P. N. Jelinsky, J. M. Stock, “Electronic and optical moiré interference with microchannel plates: artifacts and benefits,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2240–2248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin, O. H. Siegmund, “Measurements of metric nonlinearities of MCP-based lobster-eye x-ray telescope optics by moiré interferometry,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 866–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I. C. E.

Uttley, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vestrand, T.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, (1992).

Vogt, K.

K. Vogt, “Zur Optik des FluSSkrebsauges,” Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 691 (1975).

Ward, M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, B.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, D. J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, N. E.

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 416–422 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, S.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. W.

W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 416–422 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “An X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (3)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 µm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, “Deconvolution of an extended object viewed by a lobster-eye telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 459, 354–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray focusing using square channel-capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, “Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268–1273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (2)

M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239, 88–99 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245, 46–55 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

K. Vogt, “Zur Optik des FluSSkrebsauges,” Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 691 (1975).

Other (11)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE4497, 115–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 404–415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 452–458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE4145, 209–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 416–422 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin, O. H. Siegmund, “Measurements of metric nonlinearities of MCP-based lobster-eye x-ray telescope optics by moiré interferometry,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 866–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 188–192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, “X-ray optics of square channel arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia, 1996).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, (1992).

P. Rockett, “The accuracy of sub-pixel localisation in the Canny edge detector,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference,”T. Pridmore, D. Elliman, eds. (British Machine Vision Association, 71 Graham Rd., Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 2JS, UK, 1999), pp. 392–401.

Any surface that can be traced over by a line that moves through three-dimensional space is known as a ruled surface. If two independent such rulings describe a single surface, such a surface is known as doubly ruled.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-meridian geometry is one possible configuration for a spherical lobster-eye optic and is close to the geometry achieved when flat optics are curved by slumping on a spherical mandrel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selection of illustrative rays passing through a small portion of a lobster-eye optic onto a focused image. Note that this schematic is not to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram illustrating the focusing action in one dimension of a spherical geometry lobster-eye optic with radius of curvature R.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of major lobster optic defect types: (a) no defects, (b) rotation, (c) tilt, (d) taper, (e) twist, (f) one example of nonsquareness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Line segments from A to B, B to C, C to D, and D to A form a skew quadrilateral. Note that this is a closeup of Fig. 4 (e).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One of the original images with overlaid white dots that indicate the vertices located by the analysis program. The dots on two of the squares have been magnified to assist in location.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulated image by use of the data obtained from the new optic analysis technique and (b) the same simulation with random displacements between -0.2 and 0.2 µm (corresponding to tilts between -0.03 and 0.03 mrad) added in each direction between images during mosaicking. Note the wobble and degradation of the focal arms in image (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image of the front surface of the optic created from the analysis code output file with each channel shaded according to its horizontal long-axis channel tilt.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Select Characteristic Defect Measurements Extracted from the Optic Description Dataa

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dx=vx-ux
dy=vy-uy,
P=C+αA-C+βD-C+αB+C-A-D,
rd=r1-Er2,
σ=ixi-jxjN2N-112,
rms=ixi2N12.

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