Abstract

We have developed a new depth-graded multilayer system comprising W and SiC layers, suitable for use as hard x-ray reflective coatings operating in the energy range 100–200 keV. Grazing-incidence x-ray reflectance at E = 8 keV was used to characterize the interface widths, as well as the temporal and thermal stability in both periodic and depth-graded W/SiC structures, whereas synchrotron radiation was used to measure the hard x-ray reflectance of a depth-graded multilayer designed specifically for use in the range E∼150–170 keV. We have modeled the hard x-ray reflectance using newly derived optical constants, which we determined from reflectance versus incidence angle measurements also made using synchrotron radiation, in the range E = 120–180 keV. We describe our experimental investigation in detail, compare the new W/SiC multilayers with both W/Si and W/B4C films that have been studied previously, and discuss the significance of these results with regard to the eventual development of a hard x-ray nuclear line telescope.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K. W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, S. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Tananbaum, N. White, P. Sullivan, eds., Proceedings of the High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Workshop (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).
  4. See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).
  5. F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).
  6. D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of X-rays from non-ideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), pp. 281–282.
  8. P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.
  9. P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, C. C. Walton, ‘Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W/B4C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < λ < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2212–2214 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Glass substrates were provided by Wave Precision, Moorpark, Calif.
  14. D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. High-energy atomic scattering factors are available at http://www-phys.llnl.gov/Research/scattering/asf.html .
  16. High-energy mass absorption coefficients are available for elements at http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/XrayMassCoef/cover.html . For compounds, see http://bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov/ .
  17. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. The optical constants that we derived here will be included with the next release of IMD, available at http://cletus.phys.columbia.edu/windt/imd .

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1994 (2)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of X-rays from non-ideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abdali, S.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmy, S. D.

Bartlett, L. M.

Boggs, S. E.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Broadway, D.

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W.

Chen, H. C.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Chonko, J.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Christensen, F. E.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Craig, W. W.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Decker, T. R.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Degroot, B.

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freund, A.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Furuzawa, A.

Gehrels, N.

Gehrels, N. A.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Gorenstein, P.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Griffith, J. E.

Grindlay, J. E.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, C. C. Walton, ‘Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W/B4C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < λ < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2212–2214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

Hailey, C.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C. J.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. A.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Høghøj, P.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), pp. 281–282.

Jensen, C. P.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Jimenez-Garate, M.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Garate, M. A.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Joensen, K. D.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Kalyanaraman, R.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, J.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Kunieda, H.

Kurczynski, P.

Lodha, G.

Mao, P. H.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakajo, N.

Nakamura, N.

Namba, Y.

Okajima, Y.

Palmer, D.

Parsons, A.

Pinto, P.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Platonov, Y. Y.

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

Sileo, M.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Soong, Y.

Stahl, S. M.

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of X-rays from non-ideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Takata, H.

Tamura, K.

Tawara, Y.

Teegarden, B. J.

Thorsett, S.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Tueller, J.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K. W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, S. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Walton, C. C.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, C. C. Walton, ‘Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W/B4C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < λ < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2212–2214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Woosley, S. E.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Yamashita, K.

Yu, H.

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Ziegler, E.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

Appl. Opt. (2)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys (1)

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys 88, 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of X-rays from non-ideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (11)

Glass substrates were provided by Wave Precision, Moorpark, Calif.

High-energy atomic scattering factors are available at http://www-phys.llnl.gov/Research/scattering/asf.html .

High-energy mass absorption coefficients are available for elements at http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/XrayMassCoef/cover.html . For compounds, see http://bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov/ .

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 535–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), pp. 281–282.

P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, “Broadband focusing of hard X-rays using a supermirror,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 142–145.

P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, Y. Y. Platonov, D. Broadway, B. Degroot, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, “Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard x-ray focusing telescopes,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, 526–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Tananbaum, N. White, P. Sullivan, eds., Proceedings of the High Throughput X-Ray Spectroscopy Workshop (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

See, for example, J. Koglin, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, J. Chonko, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. P. Jensen, M. Sileo, D. L. Windt, H. Yu, “Development and production of hard x-ray multilayer optics for HEFT,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, H. C. Chen, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, N. A. Gehrels, J. E. Grindlay, C. J. Hailey, P. Pinto, S. Thorsett, J. Tueller, S. E. Woosley, “High-resolution spectroscopic imaging mission (HSI),” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Truemper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE (to be published).

The optical constants that we derived here will be included with the next release of IMD, available at http://cletus.phys.columbia.edu/windt/imd .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRR measurements of periodic W/SiC multilayers containing N = 300 bilayers, with periods d as indicated. For clarity, each curve is offset by a factor of 10 from the previous curve. Fits to the measured data are shown as dotted lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRR results for (a) depth-graded W/SiC and (b) W/Si multilayers, as described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRR results for (a) periodic W/SiC and (b) W/Si multilayers comparing the as-deposited films with those annealed for 1 h at 100 °C and 300 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hard x-ray reflectance of (a) depth-graded W/SiC and (b) W/Si multilayers measured using synchrotron radiation. The solid lines are calculations made with experimentally determined optical constants, and the dotted lines are calculations made with theoretical optical constants, as described in Section 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray reflectance versus graze-angle curves for single-layer films of (a) W, (b) SiC, (c) Ni.93V.07, and (d) B4C. The film thicknesses determined from XRR are indicated in each case. Curves obtained at E = 121.8, 150.2, and 178.9 keV are indicated. χ2 minimization fits to the measured data are shown as solid lines. The dotted lines are the reflectance curves calculated with optical constants computed from theoretical atomic scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients that account for incoherent scattering. (LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology; BNL: Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical constants (1-n) (triangles) and k (squares) derived from reflectance versus incidence angle data for (a) W, (b) SiC, (c) Ni.93V.07, and (d) B4C. The solid lines are polynomial fits to the experimental data. The dotted lines are theoretical values computed from atomic scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, as described in the text. (LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology; BNL: Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Rates Determined from XRR

Tables Icon

Table 2 Interface Widths Determined from the Fits to the XRR Data Shown in Fig. 1

Equations (1)

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di=10.843549.4952+i0.055, i=1,  1100,

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