Abstract

A fiber grating prism that consists of four tunable chirped-grating delay lines for wideband true-time-delay beam forming is proposed and demonstrated. The chirped gratings are produced by use of the grating bending technique in which a uniform grating is surface mounted on a simply supported beam. We obtained chirped gratings with different chirp rates by bending the uniform gratings with different beam deflections. Four linear chirped fiber gratings with identical spectral width but linearly increased grating length are fabricated. The spectra and time-delay responses of the tunable chirped gratings are measured. A chirped-grating prism for wideband true-time-delay beam forming by use of four chirped gratings is constructed and tested experimentally. We obtained different time delays by tuning the wavelength of the optical carrier. The proposed true-time-delay beam former with a four-element phased-array steerer is suitable for continuous beam forming at microwave frequencies up to 20 GHz.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. L. Stutzman, G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–102.

2002 (3)

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corral, J. L.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edge, C.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fells, J.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johns, S.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kole, M. J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, A.

A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molony, A.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payson, P.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Regidor, S.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stutzman, W. L.

W. L. Stutzman, G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–102.

Thiele, G. A.

W. L. Stutzman, G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–102.

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Moloney, C. Edge, I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. Yao, “Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172–1174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Kole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. (1)

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased-array antennas using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism,” Opt. Commun. 207, 177–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Liu, J. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, “Tunable chirping of a fiber Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using a simply supported beam,” Opt. Eng. 41, 740–741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. L. Stutzman, G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–102.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the tunable chirped fiber grating prism beam former for a four-element wideband PAA system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the relative grating location difference that determines the radiation angle of the PAA system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the time-delay measurements: TLS, tunable laser source; Osci, oscilloscope; SG, signal generator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD, photodetector; IMG, index-matching gel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection spectra and time-delay responses of the four chirped fiber gratings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental time-delay measurements of tunable fiber grating delay lines at the microwave frequency of 10 GHz: ○, grating 1; □, grating 2; △, grating 3; ×, grating 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the tunable wavelength of the optical source and the PAA radiation angle.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θmin=arcsin4nfmdmin/c,
sin θ0=cΔtddPAA,
sin θ0=cΔλdPAA k1=2nΔddPAA,
sin θ0=kΔλ=kλL-λC,
AFθ=|fψ|=sinNψ/2N sinψ/2,
ψθ=-βdPAA sin θ+α,
fdeg=c/4λC2δ1/2,
sin θ0=0.212×λL-1553.0.

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