Abstract

A two-beam chirped-pulse-amplification Nd:glass laser system dedicated to x-ray laser research is described. Each beam provides an output energy of 20 J with a typical pulse duration of 1.3 ps. A prepulse of variable duration is generated by use of a novel, to our knowledge, optical system. A reflection optical system, comprised of an off-axis parabolic mirror and a spherical mirror, produces a line focus with 6-mm length and 15-μm width without chromatic aberration. By use of this pumping laser system, the nickel-like silver x-ray laser at a wavelength of 13.9 nm has been demonstrated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
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2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

X. Liu, R. Wagner, A. Maksimchuk, E. Goodman, J. Workman, D. Umstadler, A. Migus, “Nonlinear temporal diffraction and frequency shifts resulting from pulse shaping in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1163–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Ross, J. Boon, R. Corbett, A. R. Damerell, P. Gottfeldt, C. J. Hooper, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, O. William, “Design and performance of a new line focus geometry for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1584–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

Allott, R. M.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Barbee, T. W.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Behjat, A.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchot, N.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boon, J.

Campbell, E. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanteloup, J. C.

Collier, J. L.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Corbett, R.

Daido, H.

Damerell, A. R.

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danson, C. N.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

DaSilva, L. B.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, A.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, L.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fourcade, P.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, E.

Gottfeldt, P.

Gu, Y.

Gullikson, E.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagelstein, P. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, Y.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, M.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, P. B.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, C. J.

Hubert, S.

Hutchinson, H. M. R.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Imani, T.

Imazono, T.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalachnikov, M.

Kalachnikov, M. P.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, S.

Kato, Y.

Kauffman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Ross, J. Boon, R. Corbett, A. R. Damerell, P. Gottfeldt, C. J. Hooper, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, O. William, “Design and performance of a new line focus geometry for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1584–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiehn, G. P.

Klisnick, A.

Kodama, R.

Koike, M.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. N.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Ross, J. Boon, R. Corbett, A. R. Damerell, P. Gottfeldt, C. J. Hooper, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, O. William, “Design and performance of a new line focus geometry for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1584–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Li, Y.

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. J.

Liu, X.

London, R. A.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksimchuk, A.

Matthews, D. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxon, S.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, E. A.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minomiya, S.

Miquel, J. L.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, N.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murai, K.

Nagai, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Nickeles, P. V.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

Nilsen, J.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P. A.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Rourke, R. M. N.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ogiwara, N.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osterheld, A. L.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peplar, D. A.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poressini, E. P.

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, S. A.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ros, D.

Rose, S. J.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. D.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, I. N.

Rossi, B.

B. Rossi, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading Mass., 1956), p. 75.

Salmon, E.

Sandner, W.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Schnüerer, M.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnúrer, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, Y. F.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, R.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Squier, J.

Stewart, R. E.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takagi, M.

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, O.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebes, J. E.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umstadler, D.

Underwood, J. H.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, R.

Walsh, F.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weave, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, D. A.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Will, I.

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Will, L.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

William, O.

Winstone, T. B.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Workman, J.

Wyart, J. F.

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, O.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

You, Y. L.

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, Ph.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Daido, S. Minomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, Y. Kato, K. Murai, J. Zhang, Y. You, Y. Gu, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickeles, M. Schnüerer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Multi-terawatt hybrid Ti:Sa-Nd:glass dual-beam laser: a novel XUV laser driver,” Opt. Commun. 133, 216–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Kuba, A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Fourcade, G. Jamelot, J. L. Miquel, N. Blanchot, J. F. Wyart, “Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, R. M. N. O’Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnúrer, L. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of x-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825–2828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weave, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. A. Norreys, G. J. Tallents, A. Behjat, C. Danson, A. Demir, L. Dwivedi, M. Holden, P. B. Holden, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, S. J. Rose, Y. F. Shao, O. Thomas, F. Walsh, Y. L. You, “Demonstration of high gain in a recombination XUV laser at 18.2 nm driven by a 20 J, 2 ps glass laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1335–1338 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. Rossi, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading Mass., 1956), p. 75.

J. L. Collier, C. N. Danson, R. M. Allott, H. M. R. Hutchinson, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. A. Peplar, T. B. Winstone, J. Zhang, “Ultra-short pulse line focus traveling-wave implementation on the Vulcan laser,” Proc. X-ray Lasers—1998, Y. Kato, H. Takuma, H. Daido, eds., (Institute of Physics, London, 1999), Vol. 159, pp. 649–652 (1999).

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, N. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the CPA glass laser system, in which SA, ASF, RA, OS, FR, VSF, BS, and ND represent a serrated aperture, an air spatial filter, a glass-rod amplifier, an optical shutter, a Faraday rotator, a vacuum spatial filter, a beam splitter, and a neutral-density filter, respectively. The numeric of the RA, OS, and FR refers to their diameter in millimeters. At several positions, the schematic temporal pulse shape, the energy, and the amount of the chirp or the pulse duration are given.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the additional stretcher.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial profile of the output beam. The energy is estimated to be 16 J. The spatial profiles of the cross sections cut at x-x′ and y-y′ lines are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic figure of the pulse compressor. M1–M3 and EM represent planar mirrors 1–3 and an elevation mirror, respectively. The gratings, G1 and G2, can be rotated along the x, y, and z axes. The second grating, G2, can be slid along the direction indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) intensity of the compressed light taken by a single-shot autocorrelator. The duration of the main pulse is 1.3 ps (FWHM).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic figure of the line focusing system and the target holder. M1–M3, OAP, and SP represent three planar mirrors, an off-axis parabolic mirror, and a spherical mirror, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image of the trace of the line focus on a titanium slab target. We used a wire with a diameter of 30 μm for a reference. The width of the line focus is estimated to be 15 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Typical spectra from the nickellike silver plasma. The abscissa is the channel number of the CCD, which is a function of wavelength, and the ordinate is the photoelectron counts. The x-ray laser line at 13.9 nm is indicated with an arrow. (b) The x-ray laser output for various target lengths. Circles, experimental points. By use of the Linford fitting formula, the gain coefficient is estimated to be 24 cm-1, and the gain-length product is 9.6 for the target length of 0.4 cm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurements at Each Rod Amplifiera

Metrics