Abstract

To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of ≅110 μm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 × 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifier, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 × 10-17 W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 μV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Fujiwara, “Development of far-infrared Ge:Ga photoconductor having a longitudinal configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3099–3101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Fujiwara, N. Hiromoto, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with a low Ga concentration of 1 × 1014 cm-3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4262–4266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays: design consideration and quantitative analysis of prototype single pixels,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 827–836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. J. Lonsdale, P. B. Hacking, T. P. Conrow, “Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey,” Astrophys. J. 358, 60–80 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

P. Cox, P. G. Mezger, “The galactic infrared/submillimeter dust radiation,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 1, 49–83 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

B. T. Soifer, J. R. Houck, G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 187–230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Beichman, “The IRAS view of the galaxy and the solar system,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 521–563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

L. Varnell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anheyer, H.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arimura, S.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H. H.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barl, L.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baud, B.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays: design consideration and quantitative analysis of prototype single pixels,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 827–836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Beeman, W. L. Hansen, E. E. Haller, “Extrinsic germanium photoconductors for far-IR astronomy: research results and works in progress,” in Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, E. J. Rolfe, ed., ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands), pp. 21–24 (1996).

Beichman, C. A.

C. A. Beichman, “The IRAS view of the galaxy and the solar system,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 521–563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beintema, D. A.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, N.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bratt, P. R.

P. R. Bratt, “Impurity germanium and silicon infrared detector,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1997), pp. 33–142.

Cadien, J.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, D. T.

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Clegg, P. E.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Conrow, T. P.

C. J. Lonsdale, P. B. Hacking, T. P. Conrow, “Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey,” Astrophys. J. 358, 60–80 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cox, P.

P. Cox, P. G. Mezger, “The galactic infrared/submillimeter dust radiation,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 1, 49–83 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Czech, E.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, L.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. T.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, T.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Doi, Y.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driescher, H.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, J. P.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Engemann, D.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frenzl, O.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
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M. Fujiwara, N. Hiromoto, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with a low Ga concentration of 1 × 1014 cm-3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4262–4266 (1997).
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N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
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N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
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M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
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Habing, H. J.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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C. J. Lonsdale, P. B. Hacking, T. P. Conrow, “Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey,” Astrophys. J. 358, 60–80 (1990).
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R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 15–21 (1993).
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J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays: design consideration and quantitative analysis of prototype single pixels,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 827–836 (1994).
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J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
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J. W. Beeman, W. L. Hansen, E. E. Haller, “Extrinsic germanium photoconductors for far-IR astronomy: research results and works in progress,” in Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, E. J. Rolfe, ed., ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands), pp. 21–24 (1996).

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
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J. W. Beeman, W. L. Hansen, E. E. Haller, “Extrinsic germanium photoconductors for far-IR astronomy: research results and works in progress,” in Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, E. J. Rolfe, ed., ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands), pp. 21–24 (1996).

Harris, S.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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Hauser, M. G.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, L.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, N. Hiromoto, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with a low Ga concentration of 1 × 1014 cm-3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4262–4266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
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B. T. Soifer, J. R. Houck, G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 187–230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
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D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
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R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
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J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
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R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
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D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
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J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
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N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 15–21 (1993).
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C. J. Lonsdale, P. B. Hacking, T. P. Conrow, “Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey,” Astrophys. J. 358, 60–80 (1990).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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B. T. Soifer, J. R. Houck, G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 187–230 (1987).
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G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
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T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
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H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olnon, F. M.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paul, E.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilbratt, G.

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pottasch, S. R.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rabanus, D.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, E.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Raines, S. N.

D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rieke, G. H.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rivlis, G.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rösner, K.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rowan-Robinson, M.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Satyapal, S.

D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnurr, R.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sclar, N.

N. Sclar, “Properties of doped silicon and germanium infrared detectors,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics (Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1984), Vol. 9, pp. 240–242.
[CrossRef]

Shibai, H.

T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soifer, B. T.

B. T. Soifer, J. R. Houck, G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 187–230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, T.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. L.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, J. M.

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

van Duinen, R.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Varnell, L.

L. Varnell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. G.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Q.

J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Watabe, T.

T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, D. M.

D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wesselius, P. R.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

White, A. M.

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Winters, G. S.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, E.

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. T.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

H. Shibai, S. Arimura, M. Tanaka, T. Teshima, Y. Doi, T. Nagata, N. Naruta, S. Makiuti, N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Okuda, A. Itoh, “FIRBE: Far-infrared balloon-borne experiment,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2089–2097 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirao, Y. Hibi, M. Kawada, H. Nagata, H. Shibai, T. Watabe, M. Noda, T. Nakagawa, “Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETs for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F,” Adv. Space Res. 30, 2117–2122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

B. T. Soifer, J. R. Houck, G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 187–230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Beichman, “The IRAS view of the galaxy and the solar system,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 521–563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Optical efficiency of far-infrared photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4125–4134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. A 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Fujiwara, “Development of far-infrared Ge:Ga photoconductor having a longitudinal configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3099–3101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Rev.

P. Cox, P. G. Mezger, “The galactic infrared/submillimeter dust radiation,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 1, 49–83 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

C. J. Lonsdale, P. B. Hacking, T. P. Conrow, “Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey,” Astrophys. J. 358, 60–80 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Neugebauer, H. J. Habing, R. van Duinen, H. H. Aumann, B. Baud, C. A. Beichman, D. A. Beintema, N. Boggess, P. E. Clegg, T. de Jong, J. P. Emerson, T. N. Gautier, F. C. Gillett, S. Harris, M. G. Hauser, J. R. Houck, R. E. Jennings, F. J. Low, P. L. Marsden, G. Miley, F. M. Olnon, S. R. Pottasch, E. Raimond, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. T. Soifer, R. G. Walker, P. R. Wesselius, E. Young, “The infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 278, L1–L6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices

J. T. Longo, D. T. Cheung, A. M. Andrews, C. C. Wang, J. M. Tracy, “Infrared focal plane in intrinsic semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 25, 213–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

L. Varnell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays: design consideration and quantitative analysis of prototype single pixels,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 827–836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Hermann, M. Tani, K. Sakai, R. Fukasawa, “Terahertz imaging of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1247–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Watson, M. T. Guptill, J. E. Huffman, T. N. Krabach, S. N. Raines, S. Satyapal, “Germanium blocked-impurity-band detector array: unpassivated devices with bulk substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4199–4206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductors for space applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 1676–1680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, N. Hiromoto, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with a low Ga concentration of 1 × 1014 cm-3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4262–4266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Hiromoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Shibai, T. Hirao, T. Nakagawa, M. Kawada, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor 2D direct hybrid array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 48–56 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Young, “Germanium detectors for the far-infrared,” http://www.stsci.edu/stsci/meetings/space_detectors/proceedings/june27_proceed.htm .

P. Cox, M. F. Kessler, eds., The Universe as Seen by ISO, ESA SP-427 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999).

P. R. Bratt, “Impurity germanium and silicon infrared detector,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1997), pp. 33–142.

E. T. Young, J. T. Davis, C. L. Thompson, G. H. Rieke, G. Rivlis, R. Schnurr, J. Cadien, L. Davidson, G. S. Winters, K. A. Kormos, “Far-infrared imaging array for SIRTF,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Katterloher, L. Barl, J. Beeman, E. Czech, D. Engemann, O. Frenzl, N. Haegel, E. E. Haller, T. Henning, L. Hermans, G. Jakkob, M. Konuma, G. Pilbratt, “4 × 32 FIRGA array—a pacesetter for a 52 × 32-element gallium arsenide focal plane array,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 116–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Beeman, W. L. Hansen, E. E. Haller, “Extrinsic germanium photoconductors for far-IR astronomy: research results and works in progress,” in Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, E. J. Rolfe, ed., ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands), pp. 21–24 (1996).

J. Wolf, J. Schubert, H. Anheyer, H. Driescher, K. Hanna, S. Kirches, E. Paul, D. Rabanus, K. Rösner, A. Krabbe, “SPICA: a spectral-photometric infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 952–961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawada, “Far-infrared surveyor onboard IRIS,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 905–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, “Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F),” in Space Telescope and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 471–477 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Sclar, “Properties of doped silicon and germanium infrared detectors,” in Progress in Quantum Electronics (Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1984), Vol. 9, pp. 240–242.
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, NEC Corporation 1-1 Miyazaki, 4-chome, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8555, Japan (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph and (b) conceptual cross-sectional view of the Ge:Ga direct hybrid array. GND, ground level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Soft-x-ray photograph of the direct hybrid array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic cross-sectional views of (a) the single element of the Ge:Ga photoconductor, (b) the cubic sample in longitudinal configuration, and (c) the cubic sample in transverse configuration. GND, ground level.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity of undoped Ge with B-ion-implanted layers in longitudinal configuration as a function of the bias field, for the bottom anode electrode (solid curve) and the transparent anode electrode (dashed curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Responsivities and NEPs as functions of the bias field. Squares, step change in the photon influx (dc); triangles, 7.5-Hz chopped light; circles, 15-Hz chopped light. Solid curves, responsivities; dashed curves, NEPs. (b) Responsivities and NEPs of three pixels of 16-element linear array. Solid curves, responsivities; dashed curves, NEPs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral response of Ge:Ga photoconductor. Solid and dashed curves, longitudinal and transverse configurations, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Noise spectrum of the Ge:Ga direct hybrid array under dark conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output waveform of the Ge:Ga direct hybrid array at 2.15 K. Integration time was 1 s, and the bias field was 1.8 V/cm. Solid curve, is for the BB source on; dashed curve, for the BB source off.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Cross-Talk Characteristics of the Linear Array

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

=1+ a2+2acb2+c21/2-1,
c=4r2-b2,
σ=G, σcompression=-5×10-51.6×108, σtension=-5×10-56×107,
In,ph2=4e2G2ηP1+b=4eID1+bG,
G=μτE/l,
η= T1-exp-2αd1-1-Texp-2αd,
Vo=-AVb1-exp- tCfRdA+1,
Vn,CDS2=0 Vnf24 sin2πfT1+f/fC2df,

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