Abstract

Infrared transmission spectra were recorded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory MkIV interferometer during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) mission in the early months of 1992. In our research, we infer the properties of the stratospheric aerosols from these spectra. The MkIV instrument employs two different detectors, a HgCdTe photoconductor for 650–1850 cm-1 and an InSb photodiode for 1850–5650 cm-1, to simultaneously record the solar intensity throughout the mid-infrared. These spectra have been used to retrieve the concentrations of a large number of gases, including chlorofluorocarbons, NOy species, O3, and ozone-depleting gases. We demonstrate how the residual continua spectra, obtained after accounting for the absorbing gases, can be used to obtain information about the stratospheric aerosols. Infrared extinction spectra are calculated for a range of modeled aerosol size distributions and compositions with Mie theory and fitted to the measured residual spectra. By varying the size distribution parameters and sulfate weight percent, we obtain the microphysical properties of the aerosols that best fit the observations. The effective radius of the aerosols is found to be between 0.4 and 0.6 μm, consistent with that derived from a large number of instruments in this post-Pinatubo period. We demonstrate how different parts of the spectral range can be used to constrain the range of possible values of this size parameter and show how the broad spectral bandpass of the MkIV instrument presents a great advantage for retrieval of both aerosol size and composition over instruments with a more limited spectral range. The aerosol composition that provides the best fit to the measured spectra is a 70–75% sulfuric acid solution, in good agreement with that obtained from thermodynamic considerations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the IPCC Second Assessment ReportClimate Change 1995 (IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995).
  2. M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II: an overview,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 219–226 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implications for SAGE II ozone concentrations and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19665–19681 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, “Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38–1.0-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1404–1413 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Fussen, “A critical analysis of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II spectral inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8455–8464 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Carlotti, “Global-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Grassl, “Determination of aerosol size distributions from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2534–2538 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. G. K. Yue, A. Deepak, “Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size distribution from atmospheric extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1639–1645 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23002–23012 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25345–25352 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  40. H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  41. P. B. Russell, P. Hamill, “Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index: implications of recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 41, 1781–1790 (1984).
  42. G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. A. Tolbert, “Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Science 264, 527–528 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  45. O. B. Toon, J. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–243 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  46. F. Volz, “Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substances,” Appl. Opt. 11, 755–759 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. G. d’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  48. H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, “Tropospheric aerosols: humidity dependence of light extinction,” in Hygroscopic Aerosols, L. H. Ruhnke, A. Deepak, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1984), pp. 229–245.
  49. C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  50. A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  51. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  52. B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, M. R. Gunson, “Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2768–2780 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  54. S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  55. G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  56. R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  57. S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  58. J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1044–1046 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  59. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Measurement of sulfuric acid weight percent in the stratospheric aerosol from the El Chichon eruption,” Geofisica Internacional 23, 309–320 (1984).
  60. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

D. Fussen, “A critical analysis of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II spectral inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8455–8464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25345–25352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implications for SAGE II ozone concentrations and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19665–19681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tolbert, “Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Science 264, 527–528 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23002–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II: an overview,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 219–226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. d’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

P. B. Russell, P. Hamill, “Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index: implications of recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 41, 1781–1790 (1984).

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Measurement of sulfuric acid weight percent in the stratospheric aerosol from the El Chichon eruption,” Geofisica Internacional 23, 309–320 (1984).

1983 (1)

1981 (3)

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, “Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38–1.0-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1404–1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

O. B. Toon, J. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (2)

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arduini, R. F.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D.

S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R.

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R. M.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blavier, J.-F.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Callan, M. T.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

Chang, A. Y.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chassefiere, E.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. T.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, E. W.

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, “Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38–1.0-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1404–1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clancy, R. T.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Claude, H.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G.

G. d’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Daehler, M.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalaudier, F.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debrestian, D.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debrestian, D. J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

DeMuer, D.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deniel, C.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25345–25352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drayson, S. R.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, A.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dye, J. E.

S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Echle, G.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

Ely, G. A.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, M. D.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, W. H.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fussen, D.

D. Fussen, “A critical analysis of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II spectral inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8455–8464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, D. A.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Glaccum, W.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grainger, R. G.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grassl, H.

Gunson, M. R.

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, M. R. Gunson, “Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2768–2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. Hamill, “Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index: implications of recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 41, 1781–1790 (1984).

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, “Tropospheric aerosols: humidity dependence of light extinction,” in Hygroscopic Aerosols, L. H. Ruhnke, A. Deepak, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1984), pp. 229–245.

Heintzenberg, J.

Herman, B. M.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25345–25352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hitchman, M. H.

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Measurement of sulfuric acid weight percent in the stratospheric aerosol from the El Chichon eruption,” Geofisica Internacional 23, 309–320 (1984).

Hoppel, K. W.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horanyi, M.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hornstein, J. H.

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hornstein, J. S.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, M. R. Gunson, “Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2768–2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

James, T. C.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, B. H.

Kent, G. S.

Kinne, S.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, U.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konig-Langlo, G.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korwan, D. R.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, R.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kriebel, D. L.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krigman, S. S.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, A.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucke, R. L.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lumpe, J.

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lumpe, J. D.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II: an overview,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 219–226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, “Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38–1.0-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1404–1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKay, M.

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McMaster, L. R.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, F. P.

Minnis, P.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.

Neff, B.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, T.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olivera, J. J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, J. J.

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, C. W. P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Park, J. H.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peskett, G. D.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peter, T.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J.

O. B. Toon, J. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23002–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Potter, J. F.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pruvost, P.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

Ramananahérisoa, R.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. E.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roche, A. E.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Measurement of sulfuric acid weight percent in the stratospheric aerosol from the El Chichon eruption,” Geofisica Internacional 23, 309–320 (1984).

J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1044–1046 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. Hamill, “Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index: implications of recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 41, 1781–1790 (1984).

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salawich, R. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaper, P. W.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

Shettle, E. P.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snetsinger, K. G.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solario, J. N.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Squire, M.

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implications for SAGE II ozone concentrations and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19665–19681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, “Tropospheric aerosols: humidity dependence of light extinction,” in Hygroscopic Aerosols, L. H. Ruhnke, A. Deepak, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1984), pp. 229–245.

Sterritt, L. W.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, J. T.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomalla, E.

Thomas, G. E.

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23002–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

M. A. Tolbert, “Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Science 264, 527–528 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toon, G. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C. R.

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implications for SAGE II ozone concentrations and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19665–19681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, “Tropospheric aerosols: humidity dependence of light extinction,” in Hygroscopic Aerosols, L. H. Ruhnke, A. Deepak, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1984), pp. 229–245.

Uplinger, W. G.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Venters, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F.

von Clarmann, T.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Werrett, S. T.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, J. G.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Yue, G. K.

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, A. Deepak, “Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size distribution from atmospheric extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1639–1645 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yung, Y. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II: an overview,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 219–226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, “Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38–1.0-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1404–1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, G. K. Yue, “Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 35, 433–440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti, “Global-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Grassl, “Determination of aerosol size distributions from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2534–2538 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Yue, A. Deepak, “Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size distribution from atmospheric extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1639–1645 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
[PubMed]

F. Volz, “Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substances,” Appl. Opt. 11, 755–759 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, M. R. Gunson, “Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2768–2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geofisica Internacional (1)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Measurement of sulfuric acid weight percent in the stratospheric aerosol from the El Chichon eruption,” Geofisica Internacional 23, 309–320 (1984).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, “Observations of aerosol by the HALOE experiment onboard UARS: a preliminary validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1291–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivera, R. M. Bevilacqua, L. R. Poole, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, K. W. Hoppel, J. H. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, “An overview of POAM II aerosol measurements at 1.06 μm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3195–3198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2503–2506 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. T. Szeto, “Latitude variations of stratospheric trace gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2599–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

O. B. Toon, J. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1044–1046 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (30)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. d’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16571–16596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implications for SAGE II ozone concentrations and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19665–19681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16481–16491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and microphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23007–23019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. Hamill, “Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index: implications of recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 41, 1781–1790 (1984).

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23002–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, “Estimation of polar stratospheric cloud volume and area densities from UARS, SAM II, and POAM II extinction data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5773–5783 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25345–25352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23593–23614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Fussen, “A critical analysis of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II spectral inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8455–8464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Rusch, C. E. Randall, M. T. Callan, M. Horanyi, R. T. Clancy, S. C. Solomon, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, U. Koehler, H. Claude, D. DeMuer, “A new inversion for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 8465–8475 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10799–10814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Glaccum, R. L. Lucke, R. M. Bevilacqua, E. P. Shettle, J. S. Hornstein, D. T. Chen, J. D. Lumpe, S. S. Krigman, D. J. Debrestian, M. D. Fromm, F. Dalaudier, E. Chassefiere, C. Deniel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, J. J. Olivero, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Kremer, “The polar ozone and aerosol measurement instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14479–14487 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lucke, D. R. Korwan, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, E. P. Shettle, D. T. Chen, M. Daehler, J. D. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, D. Debrestian, B. Neff, M. Squire, G. Konig-Langlo, J. Davies, “The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18785–18799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. W. Grams, P. Hamill, B. M. Herman, L. R. McMaster, T. J. Pepin, P. B. Russell, H. M. Steele, T. J. Swissler, “High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979,” Science 214, 328–331 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Tolbert, “Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Science 264, 527–528 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the IPCC Second Assessment ReportClimate Change 1995 (IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995).

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, J. T. Szeto, “Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy,” Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 457–467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, “Tropospheric aerosols: humidity dependence of light extinction,” in Hygroscopic Aerosols, L. H. Ruhnke, A. Deepak, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1984), pp. 229–245.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Slant-path weightings for MkIV measurements from two flights. The horizontal bars show the path length of the beam through each 1-km layer of the atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Black curves show the continuum spectrum retrieved after gas fitting to the measured S402 on 8 January 1992. Shaded gray areas show the continuum error that is due to measurement and gas retrieval. Aerosol composition is fixed at the best-fit value of 70%. The best-fit model is shown by red curves. Colored curves show the model fits to this spectrum with a range of r g values. (a) Column volume V and the gains C 1 and C 2 are varied to optimize the fit. (b) Column volume V is varied to optimize the fit. Gains are held fixed at the best-fit value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2, except the black curves show the continuum spectrum retrieved after gas fitting to the measured spectrum S411 on 14 January 1992.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chi-squared (chisq) values as a function of r g and σ for fits of a unimodal log-normal size distribution to the continua S402 and S411. (a) and (b) Column volume V and the gains C 1 and C 2 are varied to optimize the fit. (c) and (d) Only column volume V is varied to optimize the fit. Gains are held fixed at the best-fit value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved column volume density V as a function of r g and σ for the fitting of a unimodal log-normal size distribution to the continua spectra from (a) S402 and (b) S411. Labels show densities in μm3 cm-3 km along the slant path. Note the range of volume densities that correspond to the minima in the chi-squared shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Black curves show the continuum spectrum retrieved after gas fitting to the measured spectrum S402 on 8 January 1992. Shaded grey areas show the continuum error that is due to measurement and gas retrieval. Best-fit model is shown by the red curves. Colored curves show model fits to this spectrum with a range of compositions (weight percent H2SO4). Size distribution parameters are held fixed at best-fit values. (a) Column volume V and the gains C 1 and C 2 are varied to optimize the fit. (b) Column volume V is varied to optimize the fit. Gains are held fixed at the best-fit value.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, except black curves show the continuum spectrum retrieved after gas fitting to measured spectrum S411 on 14 January 1992.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Chi-squared (chisq) as a function of composition (weight percent H2SO4) for the best-fit size distribution model for five different spectra. In all cases the best fit is for compositions between 65% and 75%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effective radius (μm) as a function of the size distribution parameters r g and σ for a unimodal log-normal size distribution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Chi-squared (chisq) as a function of R eff for model fits to four different spectra. (a) When only the low-wave-number part of the spectra is used in the fitting, sizes are constrained at large sizes, but no size information is retrieved for the small particles where a large range of particle sizes gives the same chi-squared minimum. (b) When only the high-wave-number part of the spectra is used in the fitting, sizes are constrained at small sizes, but less size information is retrieved on the large particles and a broad range of particle sizes produces the same chi-squared minimum. (c) When the full spectral range is used in the fitting, sizes are constrained at both large and small sizes, and a fairly narrow range of particle sizes satisfies the chi-squared minimum. The minimum chi-squared is achieved for models with R eff between 0.4 and 0.6 μm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dNrdr=N0r ln σ2πexp-ln2r/rg2 ln2 σ,
Tmodel=exp-x βxVxdx,
Tmodel=exp-βV,
VOL=043 πr2dNdrdr=4πN0rg33exp9 ln2 σ2,
S=0 4πr2dNdrdr=4πN0rg2 exp2 ln2 σ,
Reff=3/4πVOL1/4πS=rg exp52ln2 σ.

Metrics