Abstract

Isolated europium-doped metal-oxide nanoparticles were probed by size-correlated high-numerical-aperture (far-field) imaging techniques. A modified Digital Instruments Bioscope atomic force microscope mounted upon a Nikon TE300 inverted microscope was used to interrogate (dry) particles ranging in size from 2 to 150 nm on the surface of a glass or quartz coverslip. These experiments revealed several interesting features of doped-nanoparticle luminescence such as Poissonian occupation statistics, size-dependent luminescence efficiency enhancement for particle sizes of <10 nm, and correlation of interesting transient behavior at particle sizes of <5 nm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem Rev. 99, 2891–2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wirth, M. D. Ludes, D. J. Swinton, “Spectroscopic observation of adsorption to active silanols,” Anal. Chem. 71, 3911–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, “Imaging three-dimensional single molecule orientations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 11,237–11,241 (1999).

1998 (5)

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Shiku, R. C. Dunn, “Direct observation of DPPC phase domain motion on mica surfaces under conditions of high relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3791–3797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Emory, W. E. Haskins, S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Parsapour, D. F. Kelley, R. S. Williams, “Spectroscopy of Eu3+-doped PtS2 nanoclusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7971–7977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie, S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Xie, “Single-molecule spectroscopy and dynamics at room temperature,” Acc. Chem. Res. 29, 598–606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, “Doped nanocrystalline materials—physics and applications,” J. Lumin. 70, 85–94 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Ambrose, W. P.

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

Bagchi, B.

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbara, P. F.

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, M. D.

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bartko, A. P.

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, “Imaging three-dimensional single molecule orientations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 11,237–11,241 (1999).

Bawendi, M. G.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, R. N.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, “Doped nanocrystalline materials—physics and applications,” J. Lumin. 70, 85–94 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bihari, B.

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bill, H.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bovin, J.-O.

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S. K.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carillo, L. L.

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charnock, F. T.

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chhabra, V.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cubitt, A. B.

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabbousi, B. O.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Belder, G.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Schryver, F. C.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeAro, J. A.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. M.

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, “Imaging three-dimensional single molecule orientations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 11,237–11,241 (1999).

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, R. C.

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem Rev. 99, 2891–2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Shiku, R. C. Dunn, “Direct observation of DPPC phase domain motion on mica surfaces under conditions of high relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3791–3797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ekimov, A.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. R. Emory, W. E. Haskins, S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie, S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feofilov, S. P.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, D.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gensch, T.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, P. M.

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guntherodt, H.-J.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haskins, W. E.

S. R. Emory, W. E. Haskins, S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hellen, E. H.

Hermann, A.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofkens, J.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. S.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, D.

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karni, Y.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, D. F.

F. Parsapour, D. F. Kelley, R. S. Williams, “Spectroscopy of Eu3+-doped PtS2 nanoclusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7971–7977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T. A.

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolodny, L. A.

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, B.

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Latterini, L.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ludes, M. D.

M. J. Wirth, M. D. Ludes, D. J. Swinton, “Spectroscopic observation of adsorption to active silanols,” Anal. Chem. 71, 3911–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malm, J.-O.

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maus, M.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McHale, J. M.

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, A.

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. W.

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. R. Emory, W. E. Haskins, S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie, S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nirmal, M.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsapour, F.

F. Parsapour, D. F. Kelley, R. S. Williams, “Spectroscopy of Eu3+-doped PtS2 nanoclusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7971–7977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyser, L.

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues-Herzog, R.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rossky, P. J.

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, G.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segura, J.-M.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiku, H.

H. Shiku, R. C. Dunn, “Direct observation of DPPC phase domain motion on mica surfaces under conditions of high relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3791–3797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Som, T.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swinton, D. J.

M. J. Wirth, M. D. Ludes, D. J. Swinton, “Spectroscopic observation of adsorption to active silanols,” Anal. Chem. 71, 3911–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taskar, N.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tissue, B. M.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trotta, F.

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Orden, A.

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veliadis, J. V.

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vosch, T.

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallenberg, R.

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weston, K. D.

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willard, D. M.

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. K.

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

F. Parsapour, D. F. Kelley, R. S. Williams, “Spectroscopy of Eu3+-doped PtS2 nanoclusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7971–7977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M. J.

M. J. Wirth, M. D. Ludes, D. J. Swinton, “Spectroscopic observation of adsorption to active silanols,” Anal. Chem. 71, 3911–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

X. S. Xie, “Single-molecule spectroscopy and dynamics at room temperature,” Acc. Chem. Res. 29, 598–606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.-S.

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, N.

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

X. S. Xie, “Single-molecule spectroscopy and dynamics at room temperature,” Acc. Chem. Res. 29, 598–606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

M. J. Wirth, M. D. Ludes, D. J. Swinton, “Spectroscopic observation of adsorption to active silanols,” Anal. Chem. 71, 3911–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kolodny, D. M. Willard, L. L. Carillo, M. W. Nelson, A. van Orden, “Spatially correlated fluorescence/AFM of individual nanosized particles and biomolecules,” Anal. Chem. 73, 1959–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem Rev. (1)

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem Rev. 99, 2891–2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. A. DeAro, K. D. Weston, S. K. Buratto, U. Lemmer, “Mesoscale optical properties of conjugated polymers probed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 532–538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofkens, L. Latterini, G. De Belder, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Hermann, K. Mullen, “Photophysical study of a multichromophoric dendrimer by time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, L. Peyser, R. M. Dickson, A. Mehta, R. N. Bhargava, M. D. Barnes, “Observation of dipolar emission patterns from isolated Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358, 459–462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. R. Emory, W. E. Haskins, S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Chen, J.-O. Malm, V. Zwiller, R. Wallenberg, J.-O. Bovin, “Size dependence of Eu2+ fluorescence in ZnS:Eu2+ nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2671–2675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

H.-S. Yang, K. S. Hong, S. P. Feofilov, B. M. Tissue, R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Dennis, “Electron-phonon interaction in rare earth doped nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 83–84, 139–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, “Doped nanocrystalline materials—physics and applications,” J. Lumin. 70, 85–94 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Wu, P. M. Goodwin, W. P. Ambrose, R. A. Keller, “Photochemistry and fluorescence emission dynamics of single molecules in solution: B-phycoerythrin,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,406–17,409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (5)

H. Shiku, R. C. Dunn, “Direct observation of DPPC phase domain motion on mica surfaces under conditions of high relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3791–3797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Parsapour, D. F. Kelley, R. S. Williams, “Spectroscopy of Eu3+-doped PtS2 nanoclusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 7971–7977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Williams, B. Bihari, B. M. Tissue, J. M. McHale, “Preparation and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk monoclinic Eu3+:Y2O3 and comparison to Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 916–920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundat, R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, “On-off blinking and multiple bright states of single europium ions in Eu3+:Y2O3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6099–6102 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bartko, R. M. Dickson, “Imaging three-dimensional single molecule orientations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 11,237–11,241 (1999).

Nanoletters (1)

D. J. Norris, N. Yao, F. T. Charnock, T. A. Kennedy, “High-quality manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nanoletters 1, 3–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Hu, J. Yu, B. Bagchi, P. J. Rossky, P. F. Barbara, “Collapse of stiff conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations,” Nature 405, 1030–1033 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, “On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein,” Nature 388, 355–358 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Rodrigues-Herzog, F. Trotta, H. Bill, J.-M. Segura, B. Hecht, H.-J. Guntherodt, “Optical microscopy of single ions and morphological inhomogeneities in Sm-doped CaF2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11,163–11,169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallagher, X. Hong, A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni, J. V. Veliadis, “Transformation of deep impurities to shallow impurities by quantum confinement,” Phys. Status Solidi B 210, 621–629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, T. Som, A. Ekimov, N. Taskar, “Quantum confined atoms of doped ZnO nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 897–901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, L. E. Brus, “Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface,” Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie, S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tapping mode AFM images of surface scans for (A) a cleaned blank cover glass, (B) an ultradilute sample of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles (≈0.01 particles/μm2), and (C) a semidilute Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoparticle sample (≈0.3 particles/μm2). We prepared the nanoparticle sample by suspending powdered Eu3+:Y2O3 in deionized water and sonicating the sample. The blank cover glass image shows that there were no impurities on the surface before spotting of the nanoparticle sample. The nanoparticles are polydisperse, with particle sizes varying from 2.5 to 100 nm (or larger).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence image and superimposed AFM surface height contours for 20-nm polymer beads. Scan angle, -3°. The total magnification at the optical detector was 400×, and each pixel corresponds to a real-space distance of 30 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overlay of a tapping mode AFM surface scan (shown as a surface height contour plot) and the fluorescence image of a semidilute Eu3+:Y2O3 sample. The illumination area for the fluorescence image was 700 μm2, and laser intensity was approximately 0.1 kW/cm2. The AFM scan area was 20 μm × 20 μm. A significant number of smaller particles do not exhibit any luminescence, suggesting that they do not contain any Eu3+ dopant.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line scans comparing area-integrated luminescence intensities as a function of time for 115.3-, 81.5-, and 2.1-nm particles and a background reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top, fluorescence image, showing the dipolar emission pattern from a Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoparticle exhibiting z orientation (box). Bottom, the corresponding AFM surface scan, shown as a surface height contour plot; the height of the z-oriented nanoparticle is seen as 3.8 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sequence averaged luminescence count rate as a function of particle size compared with a model calculation assuming 1% Eu3+ doping, a 1-ms fluorescence lifetime, and 5% photon detection efficiency.

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