Abstract

The development of microphotonic sensors based on Fourier-transform laser spectroscopy (FT-LS) is discussed. The application demonstrated is for measurement of vapors from the hydrocarbon fuels JP-8, diesel fuel, and gasoline. The two-laser prototype FT-LS sensor used for our research employs distributed-feedback lasers in the near-infrared spectral region (1.3- and 1.7-μm wavelength). An extension of this research to multilaser arrays is discussed. We believe that this is the first measurement of middle-distillate fuel-vapor concentrations using this optical mixing technique.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Kevin L. McNesby and Andrzej W. Miziolek, "Fourier-transform laser spectroscopy: erratum," Appl. Opt. 42, 3522-3523 (2003)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-42-18-3522

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Kuchta, R. G. Clodfelter, “Aircraft mishap fire pattern investigations. Final Rep.” APWAL-TR-85-2057 (Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio1985).
  2. M. R. Baer, R. J. Gross, “Extended modeling studies of the TWA 800 center-wing fuel tank explosion,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2000–0445 (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000).
  3. J. Shepherd, “Learning from a tragedy: explosions and Flight 800,” Eng. Sci. 2, 18–29 (1998).
  4. K. L. McNesby, R. G. Daniel, S. H. Modiano, A. W. Miziolek, “Optical measurement of toxic gases produced during firefighting using halons,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 678–683 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 840–845 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Yu, P. Rambaldi, J. P. Wolf, “Dual-wavelength diode-seeded Ti:sapphire laser for differential absorption lidar applications,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6864–6868 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wormhoudt, ed., Infrared Methods for Gaseous Measurements-Theory and Practice (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1985).
  11. D. W. Naegeli, K. H. Childress, “Lower explosion limits and compositions of middle distillate fuel vapors,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 982485, pp. 1–7.
  12. P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Hertzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, 1945).
  15. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1945–1950 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “High-sensitivity laser absorption measurements of broadband absorbers in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5006–5011 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).
  18. J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1–3; also see Ref. 15.
  19. J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, “An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Math. Comput. 19, 297–301 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4689–4693 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (4)

J. Shepherd, “Learning from a tragedy: explosions and Flight 800,” Eng. Sci. 2, 18–29 (1998).

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, “An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Math. Comput. 19, 297–301 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Baer, M. R.

M. R. Baer, R. J. Gross, “Extended modeling studies of the TWA 800 center-wing fuel tank explosion,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2000–0445 (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000).

Basile, L. J.

J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1–3; also see Ref. 15.

Benner, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Childress, K. H.

D. W. Naegeli, K. H. Childress, “Lower explosion limits and compositions of middle distillate fuel vapors,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 982485, pp. 1–7.

Chris, D.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clay, M.

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clodfelter, R. G.

J. M. Kuchta, R. G. Clodfelter, “Aircraft mishap fire pattern investigations. Final Rep.” APWAL-TR-85-2057 (Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio1985).

Cooley, J. W.

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, “An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Math. Comput. 19, 297–301 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, R. G.

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

Devi, M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, J. R.

J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1–3; also see Ref. 15.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

Gross, R. J.

M. R. Baer, R. J. Gross, “Extended modeling studies of the TWA 800 center-wing fuel tank explosion,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2000–0445 (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000).

Hertzberg, G.

G. Hertzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, 1945).

Hobbs, P. C. D.

Hoke, S.

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. M.

Jaeger, T.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaspersen, P.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, J. M.

J. M. Kuchta, R. G. Clodfelter, “Aircraft mishap fire pattern investigations. Final Rep.” APWAL-TR-85-2057 (Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio1985).

Linnerud, I.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, I. A.

McNesby, K. L.

Miser, C. S.

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

Modiano, S. H.

Morris, J. B.

Naegeli, D. W.

D. W. Naegeli, K. H. Childress, “Lower explosion limits and compositions of middle distillate fuel vapors,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 982485, pp. 1–7.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rambaldi, P.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, J.

J. Shepherd, “Learning from a tragedy: explosions and Flight 800,” Eng. Sci. 2, 18–29 (1998).

Silver, J. A.

Skaggs, R. R.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tukey, J. W.

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, “An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Math. Comput. 19, 297–301 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

Yu, J.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

K. L. McNesby, R. R. Skaggs, A. W. Miziolek, M. Clay, S. Hoke, C. S. Miser, “Diode laser-based measurements of hydrogen fluoride gas during chemical suppression of fires,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 443–447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Eng. Sci. (1)

J. Shepherd, “Learning from a tragedy: explosions and Flight 800,” Eng. Sci. 2, 18–29 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris, V. Benner, M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The Hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Math. Comput. (1)

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, “An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Math. Comput. 19, 297–301 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. Hertzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, 1945).

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. 1–3; also see Ref. 15.

J. Wormhoudt, ed., Infrared Methods for Gaseous Measurements-Theory and Practice (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1985).

D. W. Naegeli, K. H. Childress, “Lower explosion limits and compositions of middle distillate fuel vapors,” in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 982485, pp. 1–7.

J. M. Kuchta, R. G. Clodfelter, “Aircraft mishap fire pattern investigations. Final Rep.” APWAL-TR-85-2057 (Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio1985).

M. R. Baer, R. J. Gross, “Extended modeling studies of the TWA 800 center-wing fuel tank explosion,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND2000–0445 (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Infrared transmission spectrum of room-temperature vapor from JP-8, diesel fuel, and gasoline. The fundamental C–H absorption in each of these fuels is near a wavelength of 3.3 μm. The first overtone of the C–H stretch is near a wavelength of 1.71 μm. Spectra are offset for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal at the detector generated by a two-laser mixed beam. The laser drivers are referenced to a common timebase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus used for the prototype FT-LS sensor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sampling apparatus for prototype testing of the FT-LS sensor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption of laser radiation at 1.71 μm as air in a 2-m cell is displaced by air saturated with gasoline vapor. For the absorbance calculation, the background was the demodulated signal for each laser prior to the onset of fuel vapor flow.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of a ten-laser FT-LS source in the near infrared (under development), providing reasonable coverage of the full overtone C–H absorption envelope for hydrocarbon vapors.

Metrics