Abstract

A new approach to wavelength-modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy is reported, which incorporates diode lasers in the near infrared and optical fiber amplifiers to enhance sensitivity. We demonstrate the technique with ammonia detection, yielding a sensitivity limit less than 6 parts in 109, by interrogating a transition near 1532 nm with 500 mW of output power from the fiber amplifier, an optical pathlength of 18.4 cm, and an integration time constant of 10 s. This sensitivity is 15 times better than in prior published results for detecting ammonia with near-infrared diode lasers. The normalized minimum detectable fractional optical density, αmin l, is 1.8 × 10-8; the minimum detectable absorption coefficient, αmin, is 9.5 × 10-10 cm-1; and the minimum detectable absorption coefficient normalized by power and bandwidth is 1.5 × 10-9 W cm-1/√Hz. These measurements represent what we believe to be the first use of fiber amplifiers to enhance photoacoustic spectroscopy, and this technique is applicable to all other species that fall within the gain curves of optical fiber amplifiers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (4)

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, M. Scotoni, “Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference-frequency laser source for highly-sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmohl, A. Miklos, P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1815–1823 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (8)

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. P. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Ammonia monitoring near 1.5 μm with diode-laser absorption sensors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2031–2042 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, R. Claps, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of NH3 and CO2 with distributed-feedback diode lasers near 2.0 μm in bioreactor vent gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4395–4403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nagele, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887–889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98, 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4901–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklos, P. Hess, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (3)

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Cappasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Gaillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schafer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklos, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 μm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (3)

A. Miklos, M. Feher, “Optoacoustic detection with near-infrared diode lasers: trace gases and short-lived molecules,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 21–27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Repond, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy on trace gases with continuously tunable CO2 laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4065–4085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, F. J. M. Harren, “Geometrical optimization of a longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell for sensitive and fast trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914–2923 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

Anderson, J. G.

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4901–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

R. Peeters, G. Berden, A. Apituley, G. Meijer, “Open-path trace gas detection of ammonia based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arie, E.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

Ballard, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbuzov, D. Z.

Bassi, D.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, M. Scotoni, “Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Berden, G.

R. Peeters, G. Berden, A. Apituley, G. Meijer, “Open-path trace gas detection of ammonia based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bijnen, F. G. C.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, F. J. M. Harren, “Geometrical optimization of a longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell for sensitive and fast trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914–2923 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjoraker, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, B.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boschetti, A.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, M. Scotoni, “Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozoki, Z.

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cappasso, F.

Cham-pion, J. P.

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Rinsland, C. P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
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S. Schafer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklos, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 μm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmohl, A.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
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A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, M. Scotoni, “Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N. A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

Silver, J. A.

Sinitsa, L. N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, J. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

Smith, A. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sneider, J.

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Schafer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklos, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 μm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Szabo, G.

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Szakll, M.

Z. Bozoki, J. Sneider, Z. Gingl, A. Mohacsi, M. Szakll, Z. Bor, G. Szabo, “A high-sensitivity, near-infrared tunable-diode-laser-based photoacoustic water-vapour-detection system for automated operation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 999–1003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tyuterev, V. G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urban, S.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walega, J. G.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference-frequency laser source for highly-sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wattsin, R. B.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

Weber, M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference-frequency laser source for highly-sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

Appl. Opt. (13)

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4901–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Feher, J. Jian, J. P. Maier, A. Miklos, “Optoacoustic trace-gas monitoring with near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1655–1658 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Repond, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy on trace gases with continuously tunable CO2 laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4065–4085 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schafer, A. Miklos, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henningsen, N. Melander, “Sensitive measurement of adsorption dynamics with nonresonant gas phase photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7037–7045 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, R. Claps, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of NH3 and CO2 with distributed-feedback diode lasers near 2.0 μm in bioreactor vent gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4395–4403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Barbuzov, J. C. Connolly, R. K. Hanson, “In-situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 μm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5579–5589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmohl, A. Miklos, P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1815–1823 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Ammonia monitoring near 1.5 μm with diode-laser absorption sensors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2031–2042 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. P. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. Peeters, G. Berden, A. Apituley, G. Meijer, “Open-path trace gas detection of ammonia based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference-frequency laser source for highly-sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schafer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklos, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 μm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, M. Scotoni, “Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

A. Miklos, M. Feher, “Optoacoustic detection with near-infrared diode lasers: trace gases and short-lived molecules,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 21–27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Cham-pion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic for the TDL-OFA photoacoustic sensor. OA, optoacoustic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ammonia transition at 6528.76 cm-1 is isolated from interference from typical background constituents CO2 and H2O.20,21

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated absorption spectra based on spectral values from Ref. 20, and measured 2f spectra for two ammonia transitions at 6528.76 and 6528.89 cm-1, respectively. LIA, lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonance profiles of the first longitudinal mode for five different cell pressures at the modulation frequency, which is half the resonance frequency. The inset plots the quality factor, Q, and resonant frequency as a function of pressure. OA, optoacoustic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2f Spectra for different cell pressures from 50 to 150 Torr for 10.9 ppm NH3 in N2. The peak amplitude and interband height, which is proportional to the overlap between these neighboring transitions, both increase with pressure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal amplitude and interband height as a function of pressure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Successive scans of the two ammonia transitions near 1531.7 nm with modulation depths varying in 25-mV p–p increments.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ratio of measured peak amplitude and feature width as a function of modulation depth, with a maximum near 100 mV p–p .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured 2f spectra of 110 ppb flowing NH3 in N2, at optimum conditions, with SNR = 19.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Telecommunications Bands, Output Powers, and Species Whose Spectra Overlap with the Wavelength Ranges of the Optical Fiber Amplifier

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results for This Sensor Compared with Recent Publications on Ammonia Detection That Used the Same Transitions near 1531 nm as Were Used for This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Detection Limits for This Sensor When Applied to Detecting Other Species, the Detection Wavelength, and the Transition Line Strength

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=SmPCα,
C=γ-1LQf0V,
Q=f0Δf.
ωit=ωc+a cosft,
m=a/Δω.

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