Abstract

Commercially available GaN-based laser diodes were antireflection coated in our laboratory and operated in an external cavity in a Littrow configuration. A total tuning range of typically 4 nm and an optical output power of up to 30 mW were observed after optimization of the external cavity. The linewidth was measured with a heterodyne technique, and 0.8 MHz at a sweep time of 50 ms was obtained. The mode-hop-free tuning range was more than 50 GHz. We demonstrated the performance of the laser by detecting the saturated absorption spectrum of atomic indium at 410 nm, allowing observation of well-resolved Lamb dips.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode—the complete story,” 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See http://www.nichia.co.jp .
  7. J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72–73 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. See http://www.sacher-laser.com .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.
  13. D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).
  16. J. Sacher, “Coating process and apparatus,” U.S. patent6,297,066 (2October2001).
  17. I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. W. Chow, S. Koch, M. Sargent, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. P. Agrawal, “Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 468–471 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Hildebrandt, J. Sacher, “A comparison of AR-coated diode lasers and non AR-coated diode lasers, both within an identical external cavity,” http://data.sacher.de/arc/arbeneft.pdf .
  25. F. Favre, D. Le Guen, “82 nm of continuous tunability for an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 183–184 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1998).
  29. U. Tanaka, T. Yabuzaki, “Frequency stabilisation of diode laser using external cavity and Doppler-free atomic spectra,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1614–1622 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Nakayama, “Theoretical analysis of Rb and Cs D2 lines in Doppler-free spectroscopic techniques with optical pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1–7 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).

2001 (2)

D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

U. Tanaka, T. Yabuzaki, “Frequency stabilisation of diode laser using external cavity and Doppler-free atomic spectra,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1614–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

F. Favre, D. Le Guen, “82 nm of continuous tunability for an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 183–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Nakayama, “Theoretical analysis of Rb and Cs D2 lines in Doppler-free spectroscopic techniques with optical pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1–7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, “Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 468–471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1964 (1)

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72–73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, “Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 468–471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arens, W.

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Baums, D.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

Breede, M.

Burns, G.

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. O.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, S. Koch, M. Sargent, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. M.

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72–73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J. W.

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72–73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Demtroeder, W.

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

Dill, F. H.

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dumke, W. P.

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, W.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Euteneuer, A.

Fallnich, C.

D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode—the complete story,” 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Favre, F.

F. Favre, D. Le Guen, “82 nm of continuous tunability for an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 183–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fenner, G. E.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Glaessner, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glas, P.

P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goebel, E. O.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haensch, T. W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. N.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Haubrich, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, L.

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Struckmeyer, A. Euteneuer, B. Smarsly, M. Breede, M. Born, M. Hofmann, L. Hildebrandt, J. Sacher, “Electronically tunable external-cavity laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1573–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

Hollberg, L.

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Keyes, R. J.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).

Kingsley, J. D.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Klehr, A.

P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Knispel, R.

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

W. W. Chow, S. Koch, M. Sargent, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krag, W. E.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Laschek, M.

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Lasher, G. J.

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Lax, B.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Le Guen, D.

F. Favre, D. Le Guen, “82 nm of continuous tunability for an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 183–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leinen, H.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Lonsdale, D. J.

D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McWhorter, A. L.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

Mork, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode—the complete story,” 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, S.

S. Nakayama, “Theoretical analysis of Rb and Cs D2 lines in Doppler-free spectroscopic techniques with optical pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1–7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, M. I.

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Panknin, P.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode—the complete story,” 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Quist, T. M.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rediker, R. H.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Reich, M.

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J.

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Struckmeyer, A. Euteneuer, B. Smarsly, M. Breede, M. Born, M. Hofmann, L. Hildebrandt, J. Sacher, “Electronically tunable external-cavity laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1573–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sacher, “Coating process and apparatus,” U.S. patent6,297,066 (2October2001).

Sargent, M.

W. W. Chow, S. Koch, M. Sargent, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smarsly, B.

Soltys, T. J.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Struckmeyer, J.

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

U. Tanaka, T. Yabuzaki, “Frequency stabilisation of diode laser using external cavity and Doppler-free atomic spectra,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1614–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Velchansky, V. L.

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Weidemuller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Willis, A. P.

D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).

Wynands, R.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yabuzaki, T.

U. Tanaka, T. Yabuzaki, “Frequency stabilisation of diode laser using external cavity and Doppler-free atomic spectra,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1614–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zeigler, H. J.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zverkov, M. V.

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, “A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, “GaN blue diode laser: a spectroscopist’s view,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 567–571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72–73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91–92 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Favre, D. Le Guen, “82 nm of continuous tunability for an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 183–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single mode injection laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391–1397 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28, 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, “Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 468–471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Tanaka, T. Yabuzaki, “Frequency stabilisation of diode laser using external cavity and Doppler-free atomic spectra,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1614–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, “Theoretical analysis of Rb and Cs D2 lines in Doppler-free spectroscopic techniques with optical pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1–7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. J. Lonsdale, A. P. Willis, T. A. King, “Extended tuning and single-mode operation of an anti-reflection-coated InGaN violet laser diode in a Littrow cavity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 488–493 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Glas, A. Klehr, R. Mueller, “Transient and stationary properties in bistable operation of a GaAs laser coupled to an external resonator,” Opt. Commun. 44, 196–200 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, V. A. Sautenkov, V. L. Velchansky, A. S. Zibrov, M. V. Zverkov, “Power broadening of saturation absorption resonance on the D2 line of rubidium,” Opt. Commun. 77, 295–298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, T. W. Haensch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsaesser, E. O. Goebel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs Junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366–368 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

tm-Technisches Messen (2)

D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “Laserdioden mit externen Resonatoren fuer die Gasanalyse,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 365–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, J. Sacher, “Kompakte External Cavity Dioden Laser fuer die industrielle Messtechnik,” tm-Technisches Messen 68, 374–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. Sacher, “Coating process and apparatus,” U.S. patent6,297,066 (2October2001).

W. W. Chow, S. Koch, M. Sargent, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Hildebrandt, J. Sacher, “A comparison of AR-coated diode lasers and non AR-coated diode lasers, both within an identical external cavity,” http://data.sacher.de/arc/arbeneft.pdf .

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode—the complete story,” 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
[CrossRef]

See http://www.nichia.co.jp .

M. Laschek, M. Reich, D. Wandt, W. Arens, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, “External cavity diode laser with electrooptic wavelength tuning,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1999), pp. 141–142.

See http://www.sacher-laser.com .

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ECDL in Littrow configuration without (left), with (middle) beam-correction mirror, and in Littman configuration (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra for describing the performance of the blue GaN diode laser after AR coating. Top, gain width of the GaN diode laser. This curve allows us to give an estimation of the total tuning range. Bottom, optical spectrum measured with a higher resolution in order to determine the reflectivity of the AR-coated laser facet. The arrow indicates the minimum of the reflectivity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of a diode laser cavity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized threshold current as a function of the facet reflectivity in a semilogarithmic plot. Some of the measured threshold shifts for the AR-coated GaN laser diodes are shown as crosses in the graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Band structure of a direct semiconductor in a nonequilibrium case. The Fermi level splits up into a quasi-Fermi level for electrons (QF e ) and a quasi-Fermi level for holes (QF h ). The spectral maximum of the luminescence of the semiconductor material is defined by the energy difference ΔE between QF e and QF h . A higher value of the carrier density causes a higher value of the energy splitting ΔE, and the luminescence shows a violet shift.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold current versus output wavelength (top) and optical output power versus wavelength (bottom), respectively, of two exemplary GaN LDs in Littrow configuration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Different PI curves of LD#2: first, without AR-coating and without external cavity; second, with AR-coating but still without resonator; and third, with AR coating and in Littrow resonator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Side-mode suppression of the ECDL at 410 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical beat signal between two identical ECDLs at 410 nm (sweep time, 20 s).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical beat signal between two identical ECDLs at 410 nm (sweep time, 50 ms).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fabry-Perot spectrum of a blue GaN Littrow laser. The free spectral range of the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer is 8 GHz as indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absorption features of indium vapor near 410 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Absorption feature of the F = 5 → F′ = 4 transition of indium vapor with the Lamb dip as observed with the saturated absorption experiment.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photograph of our indium cell indicating the fluorescence.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I1I2=1-R11-R2R2R11/2.
dNdt=J-Nτn-dgdNN-NthS,
dSdt=ΓconfdgdNN-NthS-SτS+βΓconfNτn.
1τS=vgαint-lnR1R21-r2/2L,
1τS=Γ+κ,
Jth=Nthτn+κτnGN,
+κfSt-τ,
N=Nth-2κfGN,
S=J-γNΓ-2κf.

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