Abstract

Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) is a recently developed atomic-fluorescence-based analytical technique that is analogous to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. SIBS, however, uses an electrical plasma generation method on nonconductive samples instead of a focused laser beam. Here we describe the basic characteristics of SIBS and its application to the field-screening analysis of soil, using a standard addition analytical approach. Detection limits of ∼25 mg/kg have been seen for lead, chromium, barium, mercury, and cadmium. A variety of soils have been tested, some cocontaminated with organic material and uranium (238U).

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 6200, Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Soil and Sediment, Revision 0 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January1998).
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 4500, Mercury in Soil by Immunoassay, Revision 0 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January1998).
  3. M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).
  4. A. J. R. Hunter, S. J. Davis, L. G. Piper, K. W. Holtzclaw, M. E. Fraser, “Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a new technique for monitoring heavy metals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 575–582 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Vol. 17, Parts 266–299, 40CFR266, pp. 5–119, “Standards for the management of specific hazardous wastes and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities,” revised as of 1July1997. (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.1997).
  7. A. S. Eppler, D. A. Cremers, D. D. Hickmott, M. J. Ferris, A. C. Koskelo, “Matrix effects in the detection of Pb and Ba in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1175–1182 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

A. J. R. Hunter, S. J. Davis, L. G. Piper, K. W. Holtzclaw, M. E. Fraser, “Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a new technique for monitoring heavy metals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 575–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Anderson, E. B.

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Braybrooke, G.

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Cremers, D. A.

Davis, S. J.

A. J. R. Hunter, S. J. Davis, L. G. Piper, K. W. Holtzclaw, M. E. Fraser, “Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a new technique for monitoring heavy metals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 575–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eppler, A. S.

Ferris, M. J.

Fraser, M. E.

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. R. Hunter, S. J. Davis, L. G. Piper, K. W. Holtzclaw, M. E. Fraser, “Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a new technique for monitoring heavy metals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 575–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Hay, K. J.

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Hickmott, D. D.

Holtzclaw, K. W.

Hunter, A. J. R.

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. R. Hunter, S. J. Davis, L. G. Piper, K. W. Holtzclaw, M. E. Fraser, “Spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a new technique for monitoring heavy metals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 575–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koskelo, A. C.

Morency, J. R.

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Panagiotou, T.

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Piper, L. G.

Senior, C. L.

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

A. J. R. Hunter, J. R. Morency, C. L. Senior, S. J. Davis, M. E. Fraser, “Continuous emissions monitoring using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 50, 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plating Surface Finishing (1)

M. E. Fraser, T. Panagiotou, A. J. R. Hunter, E. B. Anderson, S. J. Davis, G. Braybrooke, K. J. Hay, “Fugitive emission measurements above a hard chromium plating tank using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS),” Plating Surface Finishing 87, 80–87 (2000).

Other (3)

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Vol. 17, Parts 266–299, 40CFR266, pp. 5–119, “Standards for the management of specific hazardous wastes and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities,” revised as of 1July1997. (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.1997).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 6200, Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Soil and Sediment, Revision 0 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January1998).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 4500, Mercury in Soil by Immunoassay, Revision 0 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the spark chamber for soil analysis. HV, high voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of complete SIBS soil-analysis system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of loose Andover soils between 404 and 409 nm with and without the addition of 200-mg Pb/kg soil.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard addition curve for Pb in loose Andover soil.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIBS spectrum of Andover soil near 549 nm with and without the addition of 250-mg Ba/kg.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Standard addition curve for Andover soil with the dry-spiking technique. Curve obtained with the 553.55-nm Ba line, normalized to the Fe(I) line at 544.69 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of Ba line at 553.55 nm to that of the Fe line at 543.45 nm as a function of added Ba in loose Andover soil to 1000-mg 238U/kg soil.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 NIST Certified Values, Laboratory Measurements, and SIBS Values for Pb and Cr

Tables Icon

Table 2 SIBS and XRF (EPA Method 6200) Detection Limit Comparison

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