Abstract

In optical lithography the degradation of image quality due to aberrations present in the exposure tool is a serious problem. Therefore it is desirable to establish a reliable aberration measurement procedure based on the analysis of printed images in the photoresist. We present what is to our knowledge a new method for characterizing the aberrations of an exposure tool using a hybrid diffractive photomask. By utilizing each different impact on the aberrated image from each diffracted illumination, we were able to extract the aberration present in the stepper system. We experimentally verified this method with a G-line stepper and verified its spherical aberration astigmatism.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Brunner, “Impact of lens aberrations on optical lithography,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 41, 57–67 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 459–490.
  3. A. K. K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography, TT47 (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash.2001) Chap. 2.
  4. J. P. Kirk, “Measurement of astigmatism in microlithography lenses”, in Optical Lithography 11, L. V. den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 848–854 (1998)
  5. M. S. Yeung, “Measurement of wave-front aberrations in high-resolution optical lithographic systems from printed photoresist patterns,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 13, 24–32 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nomura, T. Sato, “Techniques for measuring aberrations in lenses used in photolithography with printed patterns,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2800–2807 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Kirk, G. Kunkel, A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in-situ two beam interferometry,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash., 2001) pp. 8–14.
  8. H. Nomura, “New phase-shift gratings for measuring aberrations,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash, 2001) pp. 25–35.
  9. H. Nomura, K. Tawarayama, T. Kohno, “Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1136–1147 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. H. Golub, C. H. van Loan, Matrix Computations, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md.1996).

2000

M. S. Yeung, “Measurement of wave-front aberrations in high-resolution optical lithographic systems from printed photoresist patterns,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 13, 24–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Tawarayama, T. Kohno, “Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1136–1147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

T. Brunner, “Impact of lens aberrations on optical lithography,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 41, 57–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 459–490.

Brunner, T.

T. Brunner, “Impact of lens aberrations on optical lithography,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 41, 57–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golub, G. H.

G. H. Golub, C. H. van Loan, Matrix Computations, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md.1996).

Kirk, J. P.

J. P. Kirk, G. Kunkel, A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in-situ two beam interferometry,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash., 2001) pp. 8–14.

J. P. Kirk, “Measurement of astigmatism in microlithography lenses”, in Optical Lithography 11, L. V. den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 848–854 (1998)

Kohno, T.

Kunkel, G.

J. P. Kirk, G. Kunkel, A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in-situ two beam interferometry,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash., 2001) pp. 8–14.

Nomura, H.

Sato, T.

Tawarayama, K.

van Loan, C. H.

G. H. Golub, C. H. van Loan, Matrix Computations, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md.1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 459–490.

Wong, A. K.

J. P. Kirk, G. Kunkel, A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in-situ two beam interferometry,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash., 2001) pp. 8–14.

Wong, A. K. K.

A. K. K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography, TT47 (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash.2001) Chap. 2.

Yeung, M. S.

M. S. Yeung, “Measurement of wave-front aberrations in high-resolution optical lithographic systems from printed photoresist patterns,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 13, 24–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IBM J. Res. Dev.

T. Brunner, “Impact of lens aberrations on optical lithography,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 41, 57–67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf.

M. S. Yeung, “Measurement of wave-front aberrations in high-resolution optical lithographic systems from printed photoresist patterns,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 13, 24–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. P. Kirk, G. Kunkel, A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in-situ two beam interferometry,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash., 2001) pp. 8–14.

H. Nomura, “New phase-shift gratings for measuring aberrations,” in Optical Microlithography 14, (Proc. SPIE, 4346, Bellingham, Wash, 2001) pp. 25–35.

G. H. Golub, C. H. van Loan, Matrix Computations, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, Md.1996).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 459–490.

A. K. K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography, TT47 (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash.2001) Chap. 2.

J. P. Kirk, “Measurement of astigmatism in microlithography lenses”, in Optical Lithography 11, L. V. den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 848–854 (1998)

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