Abstract

The International Focusing Optics Collaboration for μCrab Sensitivity (InFOCμS) balloonborne hard x-ray telescope incorporates graded Pt/C multilayers replicated onto segmented Al foils to obtain the significant effective area at energies previously inaccessible to x-ray optics. Reflectivity measurements of individual foils demonstrate our capability to produce a mass quantity of multilayered foils with a rms roughness of 0.5 nm. The effective area of the completed mirror is 78 and 22 cm2 at 20 and 40 keV, respectively. The measured half-power diameter is 2.0 ± 0.5 arc min (90% confidence). The successful completion of this mirror demonstrates its applicability to future x-ray telescopes such as Constellation-X.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

2001

1998

1997

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

C. Winkler, “The INTEGRAL mission,” Exp. Astron. 6, 71–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. V. Bradt, R. E. Rotschild, J. H. Swank, “X-ray timing explorer mission,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 97, 355–360 (1993).

1980

L. Névot, P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966

1952

H. Wolter, “Spiegelsysteme Striefenden Einfalls als Abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 10, 94–114 (1952).

Akimoto, F.

Alexander, C. D.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Apple, J. A.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Barthelmy, S.

Bartlett, L.

Baumgartner, W.

W. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixelated detectors on the InFOCμS hard x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-Ray Astronomy, H. Inoue, H. Kunieda, eds., Astron. Soc. Psc. Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Benson, C. M.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berendse, F.

Birsa, F.

W. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixelated detectors on the InFOCμS hard x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-Ray Astronomy, H. Inoue, H. Kunieda, eds., Astron. Soc. Psc. Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Bleeker, J. A. M.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boella, G.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boggs, S. E.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bolotnikov, A. E.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bookbinder, J. A.

J. A. Bookbinder, “Constellation X mission and its optics,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 84–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradt, H. V.

H. V. Bradt, R. E. Rotschild, J. H. Swank, “X-ray timing explorer mission,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 97, 355–360 (1993).

Bruni, R. J.

A. Ivan, R. J. Bruni, P. Gorenstein, S. E. Romaine, “Influence of deposition parameters on the reflectivity of multilayer hard x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Kho, eds., Proc. SPIE4501, 142–151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butler, R. C.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. -W.

Chan, K.-W.

Christensen, F. E.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, K. Parker, “A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy X-ray astronomy,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 160–167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cook, W. R.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Craig, W. W.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Névot, P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, K. L.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. P.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Eggel, H.

D. H. Lumb, H. Eggel, R. Laine, A. J. Peacock, “X-ray Multimirror Mission: an overview,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 326–337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, R. F.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Engelhaupt, D. E.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feinmore, E. E.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Fukuda, S.

Furuzawa, A.

T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Gehrels, N.

Ghosh, K. K.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ivan, R. J. Bruni, P. Gorenstein, S. E. Romaine, “Influence of deposition parameters on the reflectivity of multilayer hard x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Kho, eds., Proc. SPIE4501, 142–151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Haba, Y.

Haga, K.

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F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
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Harrison, F. A.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
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Hidaka, Y.

Ho, C.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Høghøj, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
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K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Honda, H.

Hornstrup, A.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, K. Parker, “A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy X-ray astronomy,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 160–167 (1992).
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Hudaverdi, M.

Hustache, R.

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Imamura, K.

Ishida, J.

Ishida, M.

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Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Ivan, A.

A. Ivan, R. J. Bruni, P. Gorenstein, S. E. Romaine, “Influence of deposition parameters on the reflectivity of multilayer hard x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Kho, eds., Proc. SPIE4501, 142–151 (2001).
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Jalota, L.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
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F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
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K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
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K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Kato, S.

Kazutami, M.

Kito, H.

Kolodziejczak, J. J.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
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Kondo, K.

Krimm, H.

W. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixelated detectors on the InFOCμS hard x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-Ray Astronomy, H. Inoue, H. Kunieda, eds., Astron. Soc. Psc. Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Kunieda, H.

T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
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K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Kurczynski, P.

Laine, R.

D. H. Lumb, H. Eggel, R. Laine, A. J. Peacock, “X-ray Multimirror Mission: an overview,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 326–337 (1996).
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Lodha, G.

Lumb, D. H.

D. H. Lumb, H. Eggel, R. Laine, A. J. Peacock, “X-ray Multimirror Mission: an overview,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 326–337 (1996).
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Maeda, M.

Mao, P. H.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
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G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Misaki, K.

Mori, H.

Nakajo, N.

Nakamura, N.

Namba, Y.

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L. Névot, P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
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G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Nomoto, K.

O’Dell, S. L.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
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M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, L. P. van Speybroeck, S. L. O’Dell, “Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 2–16 (2000).
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T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCμS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
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Okajima, T.

T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
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K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCμS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
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Okajimai, T.

Owens, S. M.

Palmer, D.

Parker, K.

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, K. Parker, “A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy X-ray astronomy,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 160–167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, A.

Peacock, A. J.

D. H. Lumb, H. Eggel, R. Laine, A. J. Peacock, “X-ray Multimirror Mission: an overview,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE2808, 326–337 (1996).
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Perola, G. C.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
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Piro, L.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
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B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
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Rappaport, S. A.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Ricker, G. R.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Roll, J.

Romaine, S. E.

A. Ivan, R. J. Bruni, P. Gorenstein, S. E. Romaine, “Influence of deposition parameters on the reflectivity of multilayer hard x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Kho, eds., Proc. SPIE4501, 142–151 (2001).
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H. V. Bradt, R. E. Rotschild, J. H. Swank, “X-ray timing explorer mission,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 97, 355–360 (1993).

Roussel-Dupre, D.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Ryan, L.

W. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixelated detectors on the InFOCμS hard x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-Ray Astronomy, H. Inoue, H. Kunieda, eds., Astron. Soc. Psc. Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Satake, H.

Scarsi, L.

G. Boella, R. C. Butler, G. C. Perola, L. Piro, L. Scarsi, J. A. M. Bleeker, “BeppoSAX, the wide band mission for X-ray astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 122, 299–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, S. M.

F. A. Harrison, S. E. Boggs, A. E. Bolotnikov, F. E. Christensen, W. R. Cook, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, M. A. Jimenez-Garate, P. H. Mao, S. M. Schindler, D. L. Windt, “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Asċhenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 693–699 (2000).
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Schnopper, H. W.

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, K. Parker, “A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy X-ray astronomy,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 160–167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCμS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, R.

Soong, Y.

T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
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Speegle, C. O.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
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Stahle, C.

Susini, J.

K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Suzuki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Swank, J. H.

H. V. Bradt, R. E. Rotschild, J. H. Swank, “X-ray timing explorer mission,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 97, 355–360 (1993).

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B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, M. C. Weisskopf, “First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope,” Astrophys. J. 568, 432–435 (2002).
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Takahashi, S.

Takata, H.

Tamura, K.

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M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, L. P. van Speybroeck, S. L. O’Dell, “Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 2–16 (2000).
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T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
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K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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Uchibori, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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M. C. Weisskopf, H. D. Tananbaum, L. P. van Speybroeck, S. L. O’Dell, “Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 2–16 (2000).
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K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, K. Parker, “A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy X-ray astronomy,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 160–167 (1992).
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T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, S. Takahashi, S. Ichimaru, H. Kito, S. Fukuda, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, Y. Kamata, A. Furuzawa, F. Akimoto, T. Yoshioka, K. Kondo, Y. Haba, T. Tanaka, K. Wada, N. Hamada, M. Hudaverdi, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. -W. Chan, S. M. Owens, F. Berendse, J. Tueller, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, Y. Namba, “Characterization of the supermirror hard x-ray telescope for the InFOCμS balloon experiment,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5417–5426 (2002).
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R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, M. Kazutami, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajimai, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
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K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, L. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. Stahle, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. Teegardgen, “Supermirror hard x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yoshida, A.

G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, S. A. Rappaport, R. K. Vanderspek, M. Matsuoka, K. Nobuyuki, A. Yoshida, E. E. Feinmore, C. Ho, D. Roussel-Dupre, “The high-energy transient experiment (HETE)—an international multiwavelength mission,” in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Observations, Analyses and Theories, C. Ho, R. I. Epstein, E. E. Feinmore, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
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K. D. Joensen, F. E. Christensen, H. W. Schnopper, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, P. Høghøj, R. Hustache, J. Wood, K. Parker, “Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers,” in X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1736, 239–248 (1992).
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Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy: Telescopes, Multilayers, Spectrometers, and Missions, P. Gorenstein, R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE4496, 54–61 (2002).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

InFOCμS mirror. Each quadrant contains 255 nested pairs of thin foils in a conical approximation to a Wolter-I configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated reflectivity of foils over the radius range of the InFOCμS mirror. Foil 1 is at a radius of 5.89 cm and has 15 bilayers ranging from 15.35 (top) to 6.19 nm (bottom). Foil 151 is at a radius of 12.76 cm and has 50 bilayers ranging from 10.25 to 2.96 nm. Foil 255 is at a radius of 19.94 cm and has 60 bilayers ranging from 9.56 to 2.63 nm. The inner foils, with smaller angles of incidence, are designed to reflect the high-energy x rays whereas the outer foils reflect low-energy x rays. All simulations assume a layer interface roughness of 0.5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the thin-film deposition chamber: (a) top view and (b) side view. The chamber can contain up to six glass mandrels. The platinum and carbon targets are placed at opposite ends of the chamber. The small turntables, each holding one mandrel, rotate in front of the target to control the layer thickness. A large turntable holding the small turntables rotates the mandrels between the two targets. A mask in front of each mandrel compensates for the nonuniform deposition rate along the vertical length of the mandrel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the reflectometer. A rotating anode x-ray source with a copper target produces x rays that are filtered with the double-crystal monochromator tuned to the Cu Kα1 line at 8.047 keV. Collimation of the beam is performed by the 0.3 mm × 3 mm target spot size and a 120-μm-diameter tantalum pinhole yielding a divergence of 1.4 arc min. The foils are rested on an L bracket to prevent foil bending. A 1-mm2 CZT detector and the foil are rotated in a θ-2θ manner to determine the foil reflectivity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity of Cu Kα1 x rays (8.047 keV) versus incidence angle (θ) for a typical foil. The variable parameters for the foil fits are the top layer platinum, top layer carbon, bottom layer platinum, and bottom layer carbon thickness and the interface roughness between layers. The fit degrades at large angles because of inaccurate layer thicknesses at the bottom of the graded d-spacing multilayer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interface roughness versus foil radius. The increased roughness for the larger foils is believed to be due to a buildup of roughness with increasing number of layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectivity versus incidence angle (θ) of an (a) inner group and (b) outer group foil. Each is fitted with a best-fit interface roughness and the mean interface roughness of the outer and inner foils. All other parameters were allowed to vary to obtain the best fit.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ratio of measured-to-designed bilayer thickness versus designed top bilayer thickness. The inner sample of foils, with higher bilayer thicknesses, are on the right side of the graph.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fitted versus designed layer thickness ratios of platinum versus carbon. The lack of a tight correlation between the top layer ratios eliminates systematic errors in the reflectivity measurement as the cause for the difference between measured and desired layer thickness. It also rules out common sources of systematic errors in the deposition process.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pencil-beam raster-scan facility. An x-ray tube source is mounted on two 60-cm translation stages. The source is collimated by the source spot size of 105 μm × 130 μm and a 100-μm tantalum pinhole at a distance of 0.7 m from the source, giving a 1-arc min divergence in the beam.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

On-axis effective area of the complete InFOCμS mirror. The models plotted are the effective area calculations with no foil slope errors (solid curve) and a distribution of slope error similar to those on the Astro-E mirrors (dashed curve).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effective area versus off-axis angle at 20, 30, and 40 keV. The angles in this plot are offset in the azimuthal direction. The field of view of the telescope, defined as the full width at 50%, is 12.6, 10.5, and 9.3 arc min at 20, 30, and 40 keV, respectively. Measured fields of view in the elevation direction were 9.0, 10.4, and 8.6 arc min.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Image produced by a raster scan over the entire mirror. The gray-scale bar indicates the total number of counts in each detector pixel. The HPD of this image is 3.0 arc min, including systematic effects of the raster scan and binning into the 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm pixels.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

EEF of the raster-scan image at 24 keV. The models shown are mirrors with different slope error distributions, labeled by the HPD they produce at a given energy. Each model is folded into the systematic effects of the raster scan and binned into 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm pixels. Similar results were obtained at 28, 32, and 36 keV.

Equations (3)

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d=ai+b-c,
hc/EkeV=2d0 sin α 1-2ΓδPt+1-ΓδCsin2 α1/2,
dPtdC=0.450.55 1.5d0 i-0.5-0.27

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