Abstract

When three-dimensional measurements are conducted with fringe projection, the quality of the grating used for the generation of the fringes is important. It has a direct influence on the achievable depth resolution in a given measurement setup. In the past, Ronchi gratings or gratings written in nematic liquid-crystal displays or in digital micromirror devices have been used. We report on the application of a reflective ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon display as the fringe-generating element in a setup based on a stereo microscope. With this device the depth resolution of measurements by use of phase-shifting algorithms can be significantly improved compared with the application of a Ronchi grating or a nematic liquid-crystal display.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2001

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Steudle, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng. 39, 32–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Proll, J.-M. Nivet, C. Voland, H. J. Tiziani, “Application of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for brightness adaptation in microscopic topometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6430–6435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Messsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F & M Feinwerktechnik Mitrotechnik Mikroelectronik 106, 612–615 (1998).

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1990

1983

1975

1974

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bruning, J. H.

Burow, R.

Chim, S.

Creath, K.

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Droste, U.

Elssner, K.-E.

Fleischer, M.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankowski, G.

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Messsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F & M Feinwerktechnik Mitrotechnik Mikroelectronik 106, 612–615 (1998).

Franz, S.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements with fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2837–2842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. E.

Griffith, M. S.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grzanna, J.

Harkness, J.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Hossack, W. J.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Judd, E.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Leonhardt, K.

Lueder, E.

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001).

Macintosh, D.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K.

Mitchel, B.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nath, S.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nivet, J.-M.

O’Hara, A.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proll, K.-P.

Radcliffe, S.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rankin, I. D.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rickard, G.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Schmit, J.

Schwider, J.

Snook, M. W. G.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spolaczyk, R.

Steudle, D.

D. Steudle, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng. 39, 32–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Steudle, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng. 39, 32–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Proll, J.-M. Nivet, C. Voland, H. J. Tiziani, “Application of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for brightness adaptation in microscopic topometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6430–6435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements with fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2837–2842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Leonhardt, U. Droste, H. J. Tiziani, “Microshape and rough-surface analysis by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7477–7488 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, I.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vass, D. G.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voland, C.

Wegner, M.

D. Steudle, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng. 39, 32–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, A. D.

Windecker, R.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements with fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2837–2842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, “Optische Topometrie im Grenzbereich zwischen makroskopischer und mikroskopischer Formmessung,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998).

Worboys, M. R.

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Appl. Opt.

F & M Feinwerktechnik Mitrotechnik Mikroelectronik

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Messsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F & M Feinwerktechnik Mitrotechnik Mikroelectronik 106, 612–615 (1998).

Ferroelectrics

D. G. Vass, W. J. Hossack, S. Nath, A. O’Hara, I. D. Rankin, M. W. G. Snook, I. Underwood, M. R. Worboys, M. S. Griffith, S. Radcliffe, D. Macintosh, J. Harkness, B. Mitchel, G. Rickard, J. Harris, E. Judd, “A high resolution, full colour, head mounted ferroelectric liquid crystal-over-silicon display,” Ferroelectrics 213, 209–218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Steudle, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng. 39, 32–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, S. Franz, H. J. Tiziani, “Testing micro devices with fringe projection and white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 141–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

R. Windecker, “Optische Topometrie im Grenzbereich zwischen makroskopischer und mikroskopischer Formmessung,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998).

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Driving scheme for the LCOS display and LED illumination. PC, personal computer; DVI, digital visual interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stereo microscope with the LCOS display between the polarizer (P) and the analyzer (A).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-measurement resolution in terms of the synthetic wavelength λsyn at a measurement field size of 1.04 mm × 0.77 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

z resolution for the three systems at a measurement field size of 1.04 mm × 0.77 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectra of acquired fringe images for the LCOS system (top), reference system 1 (middle), and reference system 2 (bottom) in terms of the power spectral density over the spatial frequency ν. The arrows indicate the position of the higher-order harmonics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional plot of the topography of a roughness normal with a mean roughness of R a = 3.40 μm and a cut through the topography at x = 2.0 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Topographies of two chrome-plated steel sheets. Height values are gray-level encoded.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Basic Properties of the Three Measurement Systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 Projected and Detected Fringe Periods

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

βT=βL+βD,
Δz=λsynΔΦ2π.
λsyn=p2mtan βL+tan βD,
Φx, y=tan-1I2-I4I3-I1.
Φx, y=tan-12I2-2I42I3-I1-I5.
Φx, y=tan-15I2-15I8+11I6-I4I3-11I1+15I7-5I5.

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