Abstract

A new scheme of the Faraday effect current sensor of a magnetic ring-core type is reported. With this scheme a uniaxial magnetic garnet film is obliquely inserted into a very narrow gap in the ring core and a probe light beam is passed through the garnet film in the transverse direction to the core. It is experimentally demonstrated that this current sensor shows good sensitivity as well as good isolation from surrounding currents, particularly because of the very narrow core gap allowed. This transverse scheme is much simpler and less expensive than the known longitudinal scheme and can offer a practical optical current sensor of a ring-core type.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yoshino, “Optical fiber sensors for electric industry,” in Fiber Optic Sensors, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 258–266 (1987).
  2. G. W. Day, A. H. Rose, “Faraday effect sensors: the state of the art,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, R. P. Depaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE985, 138–149 (1988).
  3. Emerging Technologies Working Group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 9, 1778–1787 (1994).
  4. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, New York, 2002).
  5. T. Yoshino, T. Takahasi, T. Shimoyama, “Accurate Faraday effect current sensor,” in Advances in Optical Sensors, B. Culshaw, E. L. Moore, Z. Zhipen, eds., Vol. PM07 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 208–217.
  6. T. Yoshino, M. Gojuki, Y. Takahashi, T. Shimoyama, “Single glass block Faraday effect current sensor with homogeneous isotropic closed optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5566–5573 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Yoshino, Y. Yokota, K. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, S. Itoi, M. Ohtaka, “Fiber-linked Faraday effect current sensor using a flint glass cell with dielectric-coated retardation-compensated total reflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5963–5968 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Yoshino, “Highly efficient Faraday rotators using relatively low Verdet constant Faraday materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 745–749 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yoshino, H. Hara, N. Sakamoto, “Development of highly sensitive optical current sensors,” in Extended Abstracts of Spring Meeting of Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, March 1988 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1988), p. 860.
  10. N. Inoue, K. Yamasawa, “Stabilizing the temperature dependencies of the Verdet constant of a Bi doped garnet and development of a highly sensitive optical magnetic field sensor,” Trans IEE Jpn. 115-A, 1114–1120 (1995).
  11. N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.
  12. T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).
  15. R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Yoshino, S. Tanaka, “Theory of polar magneto-optic effects in thin films,” Oyo Buturi 34, 573–581 (1965).
  17. K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducer using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 134–139.
  18. D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

N. Inoue, K. Yamasawa, “Stabilizing the temperature dependencies of the Verdet constant of a Bi doped garnet and development of a highly sensitive optical magnetic field sensor,” Trans IEE Jpn. 115-A, 1114–1120 (1995).

1994 (1)

Emerging Technologies Working Group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 9, 1778–1787 (1994).

1993 (1)

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. Yoshino, “Highly efficient Faraday rotators using relatively low Verdet constant Faraday materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 745–749 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

T. Yoshino, S. Tanaka, “Theory of polar magneto-optic effects in thin films,” Oyo Buturi 34, 573–581 (1965).

Aoki, K.

Day, G. W.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Day, A. H. Rose, “Faraday effect sensors: the state of the art,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, R. P. Depaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE985, 138–149 (1988).

Deeter, M. N.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fratello, V. J.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gojuki, M.

Grechishinkin, R. M.

D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gyogy, E. M.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hara, H.

T. Yoshino, H. Hara, N. Sakamoto, “Development of highly sensitive optical current sensors,” in Extended Abstracts of Spring Meeting of Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, March 1988 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1988), p. 860.

Inokuchi, S.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, N.

N. Inoue, K. Yamasawa, “Stabilizing the temperature dependencies of the Verdet constant of a Bi doped garnet and development of a highly sensitive optical magnetic field sensor,” Trans IEE Jpn. 115-A, 1114–1120 (1995).

Ishiko, D.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

Ishizuka, S.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

Itoh, N.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

Itoi, S.

Kurosawa, K.

K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducer using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 134–139.

Licht, S. J.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, R. A.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minegishi, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, H.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

Nitta, M.

T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Numata, T.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ohtaka, M.

Rose, A. H.

G. W. Day, A. H. Rose, “Faraday effect sensors: the state of the art,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, R. P. Depaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE985, 138–149 (1988).

Sakamoto, N.

T. Yoshino, H. Hara, N. Sakamoto, “Development of highly sensitive optical current sensors,” in Extended Abstracts of Spring Meeting of Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, March 1988 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1988), p. 860.

Sakurai, S.

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, Y.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

Sementsov, D. I.

D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimoyama, T.

T. Yoshino, M. Gojuki, Y. Takahashi, T. Shimoyama, “Single glass block Faraday effect current sensor with homogeneous isotropic closed optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5566–5573 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshino, T. Takahasi, T. Shimoyama, “Accurate Faraday effect current sensor,” in Advances in Optical Sensors, B. Culshaw, E. L. Moore, Z. Zhipen, eds., Vol. PM07 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 208–217.

Takahashi, Y.

Takahasi, T.

T. Yoshino, T. Takahasi, T. Shimoyama, “Accurate Faraday effect current sensor,” in Advances in Optical Sensors, B. Culshaw, E. L. Moore, Z. Zhipen, eds., Vol. PM07 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 208–217.

Tanaka, S.

T. Yoshino, S. Tanaka, “Theory of polar magneto-optic effects in thin films,” Oyo Buturi 34, 573–581 (1965).

Tanakaike, H.

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Yamasawa, K.

N. Inoue, K. Yamasawa, “Stabilizing the temperature dependencies of the Verdet constant of a Bi doped garnet and development of a highly sensitive optical magnetic field sensor,” Trans IEE Jpn. 115-A, 1114–1120 (1995).

Yao, M.

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

Yokota, Y.

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, Y. Yokota, K. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, S. Itoi, M. Ohtaka, “Fiber-linked Faraday effect current sensor using a flint glass cell with dielectric-coated retardation-compensated total reflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5963–5968 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, M. Gojuki, Y. Takahashi, T. Shimoyama, “Single glass block Faraday effect current sensor with homogeneous isotropic closed optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5566–5573 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshino, “Highly efficient Faraday rotators using relatively low Verdet constant Faraday materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 745–749 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, S. Tanaka, “Theory of polar magneto-optic effects in thin films,” Oyo Buturi 34, 573–581 (1965).

T. Yoshino, “Optical fiber sensors for electric industry,” in Fiber Optic Sensors, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 258–266 (1987).

T. Yoshino, T. Takahasi, T. Shimoyama, “Accurate Faraday effect current sensor,” in Advances in Optical Sensors, B. Culshaw, E. L. Moore, Z. Zhipen, eds., Vol. PM07 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 208–217.

T. Yoshino, H. Hara, N. Sakamoto, “Development of highly sensitive optical current sensors,” in Extended Abstracts of Spring Meeting of Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, March 1988 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1988), p. 860.

Zubkov, Yu. N.

D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyogy, R. A. Lieberman, V. J. Fratello, S. J. Licht, M. N. Deeter, G. W. Day, “High frequency magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect in garnet thick films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2048–2050 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Magn. (1)

T. Numata, H. Tanakaike, S. Inokuchi, S. Sakurai, “Nonlinearity of Faraday loops,” IEEE J. Magn. 26, 1358–1360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

T. Numata, M. Yao, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, “Improved sensitivity in a novel scheme of a magneto-optical field sensor,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3402–3404 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. (1)

Emerging Technologies Working Group, “Optical current transducers for power systems: a review,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 9, 1778–1787 (1994).

J. Phys. D (1)

D. I. Sementsov, R. M. Grechishinkin, Yu. N. Zubkov, “Magneto-optic diffraction by a stripe domain structure with wavy walls,” J. Phys. D 24, 2210–2214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Yoshino, “Highly efficient Faraday rotators using relatively low Verdet constant Faraday materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 745–749 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Minegishi, M. Nitta, “Very sensitive fiber-optic current sensor using YIG/ring-core in transverse configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 850–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oyo Buturi (1)

T. Yoshino, S. Tanaka, “Theory of polar magneto-optic effects in thin films,” Oyo Buturi 34, 573–581 (1965).

Trans IEE Jpn. (1)

N. Inoue, K. Yamasawa, “Stabilizing the temperature dependencies of the Verdet constant of a Bi doped garnet and development of a highly sensitive optical magnetic field sensor,” Trans IEE Jpn. 115-A, 1114–1120 (1995).

Other (7)

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field probe sensor with high accuracy using iron garnet films,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 638–641.

T. Yoshino, H. Hara, N. Sakamoto, “Development of highly sensitive optical current sensors,” in Extended Abstracts of Spring Meeting of Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, March 1988 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1988), p. 860.

K. Kurosawa, “Optical current transducer using flint glass fiber as the Faraday sensor element,” in Technical Digests of 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS’96, Sapporo, Japan, 1996 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 134–139.

T. Yoshino, “Optical fiber sensors for electric industry,” in Fiber Optic Sensors, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 258–266 (1987).

G. W. Day, A. H. Rose, “Faraday effect sensors: the state of the art,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors, R. P. Depaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE985, 138–149 (1988).

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, New York, 2002).

T. Yoshino, T. Takahasi, T. Shimoyama, “Accurate Faraday effect current sensor,” in Advances in Optical Sensors, B. Culshaw, E. L. Moore, Z. Zhipen, eds., Vol. PM07 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 208–217.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for a Faraday effect optical current sensor with a magnetic garnet film/ring core in the transverse configuration. SLD, superluminescent laser diode; SMF, single-mode fiber; SFL, self-focusing rod lens; Pol., polarizer; Ana., analyzer; UMF, uniaxial garnet film; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor output in modulation depth m measured as a function of net coil current I ac (rms) at 50 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lock-in amplifier output measured as a function of net coil current I ac (rms) at 50 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isolation ratios measured for the different positions of (distance d, azimuth α) of external current I ext around the core gap: ●, α = 0°; ○, α = 45°; ■, α = 90°.

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