Abstract

Driven by the need for lightweight head-mounted displays, we present the design of an ultralight and compact projection lens for a head-mounted projective display (HMPD). An HMPD consists of a pair of miniature projection lenses, beam splitters, and miniature displays mounted on the helmet and retroreflective sheeting materials placed strategically in the environment. The HMPD has been proposed recently as an alternative modality for three-dimensional visualization. After demonstrating the concept, building a first-generation custom-designed prototype, and investigating perception issues and application potentials, we designed an ultralight and compact projective lens with a diffractive optical element (DOE), plastic components, and aspheric surfaces for the next-generation prototype. The key contribution here lies in the conception, optimization, and assessment of the projection optics. Thus a brief review of the HMPD technology and related research is followed by a detail discussion of the conception and optimization of the ultralight and high-performance projection optics. The design of the DOE will be particularly described in detail. Finally, the diffraction efficiency of the DOE will be evaluated, and the overall performance of the optics will be assessed in both object space for the optical designer and visual space for possible end-users of the technology.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. Buxton, G. W. Fitzmaurice, “HMDs, caves, and chameleon: a human-centric analysis of interaction in virtual space,” Computer Graphics (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 69–74.
  3. J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 24–49.
  4. A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.
  5. J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 2000), Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 287–309.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Kijima, T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), pp. 130–137.
  7. J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using retroreflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent5,621,572 (15April1997).
  8. C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
  9. J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A nonintrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality98, (IEEE Computer Society, (Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 246–251.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Hua, J. P. Rolland, “Compact lens-assembly for wearable displays, projection systems, and cameras,” U.S. patent application, 60–292, 942 (23May2001).
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  13. F. Biocca, J. Rolland, “Teleportal face-to-face system,” U.S. patent application 6550-00048 (22December2000).
  14. N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.
  15. H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.
  16. H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.
  17. M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.
  18. J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
  19. R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Inf. Displ. 10, No. 7–8, 12–16 (1994).
  20. I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers. Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, Oxford Psychological Series 29 (Oxford University, New York, 1995).
  21. D. F. Kocian, H. L. Task, “Measurement of military helmet and head-mounted display (HMD) visor optical properties,” in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays V, R. J. Lewandowski, L. A. Haworth, H. J. Girolamo, eds., Proc. SPIE4021, 120–132 (2000).
  22. J. Bunkenburg, T. A. Fritz, “Innovative diffractive eyepiece for a helmet-mounted display,” Novel Optical Systems and Large-Aperture Imaging, K. D. Bell, M. K. Powers, J. M. Sasian, eds., Proc. SPIE3430, 41–49 (1998).
  23. H. Ogawa, “Optical system with refracting and diffracting optical units, and optical instrument including the optical system,” U.S. patent5,930,043 (27July1999).
  24. J. B. Caldwell, “Diffractive apochromatic double-Gauss lens,” Opt. Photon. News (October1999), pp. 43–45.
  25. C. W. Chen, “Application of diffractive optical elements in visible and infrared optical systems,” in Lens Design, W. J. Smith, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews Series CR41 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 158–172.
  26. “Holographic and diffractive optical elements,” Optical Research Associate Course Notes (Pasadena, Calif., 1999).
  27. M. W. Farn, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary optics,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2Devices, Measurements, and properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  28. D. C. O’Shea, Elements of Modern Optical Design (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  29. W. Knapp, G. Blough, K. Khajurivala, R. Michaels, B. Tatian, B. Volk, “Optical design comparison of 60° eyepieces: one with a diffractive surface and one with aspherics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4756–4760 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Shenker, “Optical design criteria for binocular helmet-mounted displays,” in Display System Optics, A. Cox, R. Hartmann, eds., Proc SPIE778, 70–78 (1987).
  31. J. P. Rolland. “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Ha, J. P. Rolland, “Optical assessment of head-mounted displays in visual space,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5282–5289 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland. “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814–3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland. “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Caldwell, “Diffractive apochromatic double-Gauss lens,” Opt. Photon. News (October1999), pp. 43–45.

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Inf. Displ. 10, No. 7–8, 12–16 (1994).

Ahuja, N.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.

Ariely, D.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 24–49.

Biocca, F.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, J. P. Rolland, “An ultralight and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE-VR 2001 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 175–182.

F. Biocca, J. Rolland, “Teleportal face-to-face system,” U.S. patent application 6550-00048 (22December2000).

Blough, G.

Brown, L.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.

Bunkenburg, J.

J. Bunkenburg, T. A. Fritz, “Innovative diffractive eyepiece for a helmet-mounted display,” Novel Optical Systems and Large-Aperture Imaging, K. D. Bell, M. K. Powers, J. M. Sasian, eds., Proc. SPIE3430, 41–49 (1998).

Buxton, D.

D. Buxton, G. W. Fitzmaurice, “HMDs, caves, and chameleon: a human-centric analysis of interaction in virtual space,” Computer Graphics (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 69–74.

Caldwell, J. B.

J. B. Caldwell, “Diffractive apochromatic double-Gauss lens,” Opt. Photon. News (October1999), pp. 43–45.

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, “Application of diffractive optical elements in visible and infrared optical systems,” in Lens Design, W. J. Smith, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews Series CR41 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 158–172.

Chen, D. T.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Cruz-Neira, C.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

DeFanti, T. A.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary optics,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2Devices, Measurements, and properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

Fergason, J.

J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using retroreflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent5,621,572 (15April1997).

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Inf. Displ. 10, No. 7–8, 12–16 (1994).

Fitzmaurice, G. W.

D. Buxton, G. W. Fitzmaurice, “HMDs, caves, and chameleon: a human-centric analysis of interaction in virtual space,” Computer Graphics (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 69–74.

Fritz, T. A.

J. Bunkenburg, T. A. Fritz, “Innovative diffractive eyepiece for a helmet-mounted display,” Novel Optical Systems and Large-Aperture Imaging, K. D. Bell, M. K. Powers, J. M. Sasian, eds., Proc. SPIE3430, 41–49 (1998).

Fuchs, H.

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 2000), Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 287–309.
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland. “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814–3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, J. P. Rolland, “An ultralight and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE-VR 2001 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 175–182.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.

Garrett, W. E.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Gibson, W.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 24–49.

Girardot, A.

Ha, Y.

Hancock, D.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).

Hirota, G.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Howard, I. P.

I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers. Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, Oxford Psychological Series 29 (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

Hua, H.

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland. “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814–3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.

H. Hua, J. P. Rolland, “Compact lens-assembly for wearable displays, projection systems, and cameras,” U.S. patent application, 60–292, 942 (23May2001).

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, J. P. Rolland, “An ultralight and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE-VR 2001 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 175–182.

Inami, M.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

Kawakami, N.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

Khajurivala, K.

Kijima, R.

R. Kijima, T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), pp. 130–137.

Knapp, W.

Kocian, D. F.

D. F. Kocian, H. L. Task, “Measurement of military helmet and head-mounted display (HMD) visor optical properties,” in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays V, R. J. Lewandowski, L. A. Haworth, H. J. Girolamo, eds., Proc. SPIE4021, 120–132 (2000).

Livingston, M.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Maeda, T.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

Michaels, R.

O’Shea, D. C.

D. C. O’Shea, Elements of Modern Optical Design (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Ogawa, H.

H. Ogawa, “Optical system with refracting and diffracting optical units, and optical instrument including the optical system,” U.S. patent5,930,043 (27July1999).

Ojika, T.

R. Kijima, T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997), pp. 130–137.

Parsons, J.

J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A nonintrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality98, (IEEE Computer Society, (Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 246–251.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).

Poizat, D.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).

Rogers, B. J.

I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers. Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, Oxford Psychological Series 29 (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

Rolland, J.

F. Biocca, J. Rolland, “Teleportal face-to-face system,” U.S. patent application 6550-00048 (22December2000).

Rolland, J. P.

Y. Ha, J. P. Rolland, “Optical assessment of head-mounted displays in visual space,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5282–5289 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Rolland. “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland. “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814–3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A nonintrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality98, (IEEE Computer Society, (Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 246–251.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1995), Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 24–49.

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland, “A testbed for precise registration, natural occlusion, and interaction in an augmented environment using a head-mounted projective display (HMPD),” in Proceedings IEEE VR 2002 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2002), pp.81–89.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, J. P. Rolland, “An ultralight and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE-VR 2001 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001), pp. 175–182.

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 2000), Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 287–309.
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, L. Brown, N. Ahuja, J. P. Rolland. “Using a head-mounted projective display in interactive augmented environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality 2001 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2001), pp. 217–223.

H. Hua, J. P. Rolland, “Compact lens-assembly for wearable displays, projection systems, and cameras,” U.S. patent application, 60–292, 942 (23May2001).

Sandin, D. J.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH 93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

Sekiguchi, D.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

Shenker, M.

M. Shenker, “Optical design criteria for binocular helmet-mounted displays,” in Display System Optics, A. Cox, R. Hartmann, eds., Proc SPIE778, 70–78 (1987).

State, A.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics 1996 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Tachi, S.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

Task, H. L.

D. F. Kocian, H. L. Task, “Measurement of military helmet and head-mounted display (HMD) visor optical properties,” in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays V, R. J. Lewandowski, L. A. Haworth, H. J. Girolamo, eds., Proc. SPIE4021, 120–132 (2000).

Tatian, B.

Veldkamp, W. B.

M. W. Farn, W. B. Veldkamp, “Binary optics,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2Devices, Measurements, and properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

Volk, B.

Yanagida, Y.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp.233–240.

Yangagida, Y.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system—from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics’99 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), Vol.5, pp.1066–1069.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Inf. Displ. (1)

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Inf. Displ. 10, No. 7–8, 12–16 (1994).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. P. Rolland. “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. B. Caldwell, “Diffractive apochromatic double-Gauss lens,” Opt. Photon. News (October1999), pp. 43–45.

Other (26)

C. W. Chen, “Application of diffractive optical elements in visible and infrared optical systems,” in Lens Design, W. J. Smith, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews Series CR41 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1992), pp. 158–172.

“Holographic and diffractive optical elements,” Optical Research Associate Course Notes (Pasadena, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging concept of HMPDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Behavior of different reflective surfaces: (a) diffusing surface, (b) reflective surface, (c) retroreflective surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Natural occlusion of computer-generated object (bone) by real object (hand) in HMPD. Such occlusion is not achievable in conventional see-through displays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apochromatic double-Gauss, 51.75 mm, F/1.46), lens with a two-layer diffractive surface (U.S. patent 5,930,043).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimized starting point of a 35 mm, F/2.9 double-Gauss lens: (a) lens profile and (b) polychromatic MTF performance for a 12-mm pupil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Four-element, 35 mm, F/2.9 projection lens with a DOE surface and two plastic components: (a) lens profile and (b) polychromatic MTF performance for a 12-mm pupil.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profile of the DOE substrate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase profile the DOE.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Depth profile of the DOE. (b) DOE parameters.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Profile of the second aspheric surface.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ultra-light projection lens for the HMPD: (a) lens layout and (b) lens assembly.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diffraction efficiency of the DOE: (a) diffraction efficiency across the radius and (b) diffraction efficiency versus wavelength.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Lens performance for the 12-mm, full-size pupil in object space: (a) Rayfan plot across the five field angles, (b) spot diagram across the five field angles, (c) astigmatism and distortion, (d) polychromatic MTF as a function of the spatial frequency in line pairs per millimeter.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Lens performance for a 3-mm centered pupil in visual space: (a) polychromatic MTF as a function of the spatial frequency in cycle per arc minutes; (b) accommodation versus display location (DOF diopter range, -0.35–0.35, acceptable acuity 3 arc min); (c) astigmatism versus display location (DOF diopter range, -0.35–0.35, acceptable acuity 3 arc min); (d) transverse lateral color versus display location; (e) transverse second color versus display location.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Design Specification

Equations (7)

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f=-0.5/cq,
Z4h=ch21+1-1+kc2h21/2+Ah4+Bh6+Ch8+Dh10.
ϕ=2πλ0i=1M=6 cir2i
tr=λ02πn0-1ϕ mod 2π,
mλ0=i=16 cirm2im=1, 2, , N,
N=1λ0i=16 cirmax2i,
Z6h=ch21+1-1+kc2h21/2+Ah4+Bh6+Ch8+Dh10+Eh12.

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