Abstract

With a Brewer spectrophotometer, an estimation of total ozone is made from relative measurements of direct-sun ultraviolet radiation at six wavelengths from 300 to 320 nm. During normal operations, one of six neutral-density filters is selected automatically to maintain the detector in its linear response range. On the basis of these standard direct-sun observations, estimates of aerosol optical depth can be derived, provided that a calibration of the relative measurements is available for each neutral-density filter. To obtain the calibration, we implemented a routine to measure direct-sun signals with a fixed neutral-density filter and applied the Langley method to the measured photon counts. Results show that if a sufficiently large number of cloud-free mornings or afternoons is available, a reliable calibration can be achieved even at sea-level sites that are characterized by large aerosol variability. The derived aerosol optical depths appear consistent with those measured independently by a multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer. Existing relatively long-term series of direct-sun ozone measurements by Brewer instruments may be used for retrieval of aerosol optical depth.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, “Absolute spectral measurements of the direct solar ultraviolet irradiance using a Brewer spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5199–5204 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Schwartz, M. O. Andreae, “Uncertainty in climate change caused by aerosols,” Science 272, 1121–1122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kubilay, A. C. Saydam, “Trace elements in atmospheric particulates over the eastern Mediterranean: concentration, sources, and temporal variability,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 2289–2300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1986 (3)

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute cross-sections of ozone in the 185-to-350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Morales, “The airborne transport of Saharan dust: a review,” Clim. Change 9, 219–241 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Loyë-Pilot, J. M. Martin, J. Morelli, “Influence of Saharan dust on the rain acidity and atmospheric input to the Mediterranean,” Nature 321, 427–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. W. Brewer, “A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer?” Pure Appl. Geophys. 106–108, 919–927 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. J. Charlson, M. J. Pilat, “Climate: the influence of aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 1001–1002 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

A. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of sun radiation and on dust in the air,” Georg. Ann. Deutch. 12, 156 (1929), cited in E. Trakhovsky, E. P. Shettle, “Wavelength scaling of atmospheric aerosol scattering and extinction,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5148–5153 (1987).

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

S. E. Schwartz, M. O. Andreae, “Uncertainty in climate change caused by aerosols,” Science 272, 1121–1122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of sun radiation and on dust in the air,” Georg. Ann. Deutch. 12, 156 (1929), cited in E. Trakhovsky, E. P. Shettle, “Wavelength scaling of atmospheric aerosol scattering and extinction,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5148–5153 (1987).

Bais, A.

A. Bais, Department of Physics, Laboratory of Atmosphere Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece (personal communication, 2001).

Bais, A. F.

F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, “Absolute spectral measurements of the direct solar ultraviolet irradiance using a Brewer spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5199–5204 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J.

Box, M. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, “A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer?” Pure Appl. Geophys. 106–108, 919–927 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cacciani, M.

A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Campanelli, M.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamard, P.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, M. J. Pilat, “Climate: the influence of aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 1001–1002 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornwall, C.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

De Luisi, J.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

De Silvestri, L.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

Defoor, T. E.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Di Iorio, T.

A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

di Sarra, A.

A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Disterhoft, P.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 396–401.
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A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Fuà, D.

A. di Sarra, T. Di Iorio, M. Cacciani, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, “Saharan dust profiles measured by lidar at Lampedusa,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,335–10,347 (2001).
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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
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L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurements limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
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Hofmann, D. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
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I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, 4–13 August 1980 (International Ozone Commission, Boulder, Colo., 1980).

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 396–401.
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, “Aerosol optical depth in the UV range derived from direct sun ozone observations performed by the Brewer spectrophotometer Mark II No. 064 at Belsk, Poland,” in Atmospheric Ozone (Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium) (Hokkaido U. Press, Sapporo, Japan, 2000).

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N. Kubilay, A. C. Saydam, “Trace elements in atmospheric particulates over the eastern Mediterranean: concentration, sources, and temporal variability,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 2289–2300 (1995).
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, 4–13 August 1980 (International Ozone Commission, Boulder, Colo., 1980).

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 396–401.
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J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, F. Monteleone, “Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance: observations at Lampedusa during PAUR-II,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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C. Morales, “The airborne transport of Saharan dust: a review,” Clim. Change 9, 219–241 (1986).
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M. D. Loyë-Pilot, J. M. Martin, J. Morelli, “Influence of Saharan dust on the rain acidity and atmospheric input to the Mediterranean,” Nature 321, 427–428 (1986).
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 396–401.
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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, 4–13 August 1980 (International Ozone Commission, Boulder, Colo., 1980).

Olivieri, B.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, M. Campanelli, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. De Luisi, L. De Silvestri, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuà, P. Grigioni, W. Junkermann, F. Marenco, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, B. Olivieri, “Radiation, ozone, and aerosol measurements at Lampedusa during the PAUR-II campaign,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofegev, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 1193–1196.

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F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
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I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
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R. J. Charlson, M. J. Pilat, “Climate: the influence of aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 1001–1002 (1969).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
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L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurements limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationships to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
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N. Kubilay, A. C. Saydam, “Trace elements in atmospheric particulates over the eastern Mediterranean: concentration, sources, and temporal variability,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 2289–2300 (1995).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
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I. Tegen, P. Hollrig, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
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Teillet, P. M.

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurements limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
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I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
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J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 396–401.
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P. Chylek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. J. Pinnick, D. Ngo, J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,365–23,371 (1996).
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F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
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A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
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C. S. Zerefos, “Photochemical activity and ultraviolet radiation modulation factors: an overview of the project,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

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A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
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S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of a Langley plot: the measured direct-sun radiance I at 320.1 nm for the morning of 4 August 2000, expressed in photon counts, is displayed versus the air-mass factor. The data were taken with neutral-density filter 3. Dashed line, a linear regression. Extraterrestrial irradiance I 0 can be obtained by extrapolation of I to m = 0: for this plot the result is I 0 = (4.122 ± 0.034) × 107 photon counts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Values of the calibration constant for the channel at 310.1 nm and filter 3 found for the 74 half-days of the calibration period. The average value is I 0 = 2.025 × 107 photon counts, and the standard deviation of the data is σ = 0.349 × 107 counts. A Gaussian distribution with these parameters is shown as a dashed curve. The standard deviation of the mean is obtained as σ/ 74 = 0.041 × 107 counts, where 74 is the number of independent measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean daily values of aerosol optical depth (τaer) as derived by the Brewer spectrophotometer with ds measurements with all calibrated filters (0–3) at the 320.1-nm wavelength during the calibration campaign in year 2000. The error bars display the statistical daily standard deviation, representative of the diurnal aerosol variability.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Daily evolution of the 320.1-nm aerosol optical depth for three different days in summer 2000. Filled squares, 29 July; filled triangles, 4 August; open circles, 14 August.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol optical depths for (a) 27 May 1999, (b) 25 May 1999, and (c) 3 June 1999: Comparison of measurements obtained with the Brewer spectrophotometer at 320.1 nm (points with error bars) and with the MFRSR at two wavelengths, 415 nm (solid curves) and 868 nm (dashed curves).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Daily mean values of aerosol optical depth during the PAUR-II campaign held in 1999, as derived with the Brewer spectrophotometer at 320.1 nm (data points; the error bars display the daily standard deviation) and with the MFRSR at 415 nm (dashed curve) and 868 nm (dotted curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatter plots of simultaneous optical depth measurements by Brewer at 320.1 nm and by MFRSR at (a) 415 nm and (b) 868 nm, obtained during the PAUR-II campaign held in 1999. The data points are organized into four classes (see text). Filled squares, class A points; open circles, class B and class C points; filled triangles, class D points. (a) Best-fit line of all data points together, (b) three different best-fit lines for class A data (solid line), classes B and C (dotted) and class D data (dashed line).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ozone Absorption Coefficients (kO3 ) and Filter 3 Calibration Constants (I 0) at the Brewer Wavelengthsa

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Table 2 Ratio of Transmissivity of Each Filter with Respect to Filter 3a

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Table 3 Linear Regression Parametersa

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Table 4 Filter 3 Calibration Constants for Brewer Instrument # 123 Determined from the Data Set of the PAUR-II Campaign Held in 1999

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ tot = 1 m ln s   I 0 I ,
s = 1 + 0.033   cos 2 π j 365.25 .
τ aer = τ tot - τ ray - τ O 3 = τ tot - p p 0   τ R λ - D O 3 k O 3 λ ln   10 1000 ,
m aer τ aer = m τ tot - m ray τ ray - m O 3 τ O 3 .

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