Abstract

Output signal electrons from photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have neither a Gaussian nor a Poisson distribution because of changes induced by multiplication when the number of input signal photons and dark electrons is fewer than ∼100. Therefore the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of signal electrons cannot be used in simulations for space lidar observations with PMTs, for which the number of return signal photons is normally small. A theory is introduced for analog detection with PMTs that have Poisson-distributed secondary-electron emission at each dynode stage. The theory is validated by straightforward numerical simulations. It is shown that the multiplication in PMTs is a multiply stochastic Poisson process and that the distribution of output signal electrons can be interpreted basically as Neyman type A. Analysis by the threshold method of cloud detection with a space lidar shows considerable difference between a Gaussian approximation and the exact distribution. The result indicates that the threshold level must be optimized for the exact distribution. Return signals were simulated for a proposed space lidar, and cloud detection with the threshold method was demonstrated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1972 (1)

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. M. Melchior, M. B. Fisher, F. R. Arams, “Photodetectors for optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1466–1486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

J. Neyman, “On a new class of ‘contagious’ distribution,” Ann. Math. Stat. 10, 35–57 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arams, F. R.

H. M. Melchior, M. B. Fisher, F. R. Arams, “Photodetectors for optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1466–1486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Cho, B. S.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Desbois, M.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Doutriaux, M.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Doutriaux-Boucher, M.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W. L.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elouragini, S.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Fisher, M. B.

H. M. Melchior, M. B. Fisher, F. R. Arams, “Photodetectors for optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1466–1486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Forgan, B.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G. G.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glamant, C.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Guasta, M. D.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishizu, M.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itabe, T.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jager, H.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaprielov, B.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation, Vol. 10 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Kolev, I.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Le Treut, H.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lieutaud, F.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, P. Voelger, N. Sugimoto, “Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3120–3137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.-R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Melchior, H. M.

H. M. Melchior, M. B. Fisher, F. R. Arams, “Photodetectors for optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1466–1486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, Y.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, J.

J. Neyman, “On a new class of ‘contagious’ distribution,” Ann. Math. Stat. 10, 35–57 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J. M.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, J.-L.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics with Applications to Spectroscopy and Optical Communication (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

Sasano, Y.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Seze, G.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Shamanaev, V. S.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stefanutti, L.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Z. Liu, P. Voelger, N. Sugimoto, “Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3120–3137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

Treut, H. L.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Trouillet, V.

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Uchino, O.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Voelger, P.

Z. Liu, P. Voelger, N. Sugimoto, “Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3120–3137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wielicki, A.

D. M. Winker, A. Wielicki, “The PICASSO-CENA mission,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 26–36 (1999).

Winker, D.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, A. Wielicki, “The PICASSO-CENA mission,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 26–36 (1999).

D. M. Winker, “Cloud distribution statistics from LITE,” presented at the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Maryland, 6–10 July, 1998.

Wooldridge, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Math. Stat. (1)

J. Neyman, “On a new class of ‘contagious’ distribution,” Ann. Math. Stat. 10, 35–57 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. Doutriaux-Boucher, J. Pelon, V. Trouillet, G. Seze, H. Le Treut, P. Flamant, M. Desbois, “Simulation of satellite lidar and radiometer retrievals of a general circulation model three-dimentional cloud data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,025–26,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. M. Melchior, M. B. Fisher, F. R. Arams, “Photodetectors for optical communication systems,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1466–1486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. E. A. Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics with Applications to Spectroscopy and Optical Communication (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

D. M. Winker, “Cloud distribution statistics from LITE,” presented at the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Maryland, 6–10 July, 1998.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Glamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” Final Rep., contract AO/1-2668/92/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

N. Sugimoto, Z. Liu, P. Voelger, A. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, K. Asai, M. Ishizu, T. Itabe, T. Imai, “Science applications of the multi-FOV lidar for ATMOS-B1/ERM,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, T. Itabe, U. N. Singh, N. Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4153, 399–406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, A. Wielicki, “The PICASSO-CENA mission,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 26–36 (1999).

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation, Vol. 10 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of a PMT: i in and i out, input and output currents or photocathode and anode currents, respectively; i i , output current at the ith dynode stage; V p , bias voltage; R, load resistor of the preamplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distributions of output electron numbers at the third dynode stage of a PMT that has a Poisson-distributed secondary emission with m = 4, which were derived from the simulation repeated 1 × 105 times and from theory [Eq. (6)]. The corresponding Gaussian distributions, which have the same means and standard deviations, are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Means and standard deviations of output electron numbers at different dynode stages derived from the simulated results in Fig. 2 and from theory [Eqs. (9)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Noise factors obtained from the simulated results in Fig. 2 and from theory Eq. [(8a)].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probabilities of false detection versus TNRs for several values of N n .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TNRs required for the expected false-cloud-detection probability P f = 0.5, 1, 2, 5%, which were analyzed for the exact PMT output distribution with three typical values of the multiplication factor, m = 3, 4, 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SNRs required for expected miss- and false-detection probabilities of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 5.0%, which were derived for the exact PMT output distribution with m = 3, 4, 5 and for the Gaussian approximation with m = 4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Examples of simulations: (a) lidar signals at 527 nm simulated for a proposed space lidar and discriminated cloud signals with thresholds for (b) the exact PMT output distribution and (c) the Gaussian approximation.

Equations (42)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNR=GηNsηNs+ηNb+IdΔtq FmG2+2kTΔtq2R1/2.
Nin=ηNs+ηNb+IdΔtq,
Pm1, k=pm, k=mk exp-mk!.
Pms, k=psm, k=smk exp-smk!.
PinNin, k=Ninkexp-Nink!,
PoutNin, k=kn=0pknm, kkn-1=0× pkn-1m, knk2=0pk2m, k3 ×k1=0pk1m, k2 PinNin, k1 .
Pgk=12π σoutexp-k-NinG22σout2,
σout2=NinFmG2.
Fm,j=1+i=1j m-i
=mm-1j.
Nout,j=NinGj=Ninmj,
σout,j=NinFm,j1/2Gj=Nin1+i=1j m-i1/2mj.
Nsr=Nmr+Nar+Ncr=1r2 Cβmr+βar+βcrT2r.
Pg,fNT=NT+NnG12π σnexp- k-NnG22σn2dk=TNR12πexp- x22dx,
σn2=NnFmG2,
x=k-NnGσn,
TNR= NTσn,
PfNn, NT =NT+NnG PoutNn, kdk=TNR PoutNn, xdx,
Pg,mNT=-NT+NnG12π σ × exp- Nn+NcG-k22σdk =xT12πexp-x22dx,
σ2=Nn+NcFmG2,
x=Nn+NcG-kσ,
xT=NcG-NTσ=SNR-TNR=SNR-TNRNnNn+Nc1/2.
Nc=TNRFmNn +Nn+½FmxT2FmxT21/2+TNRFmNn +¼FmxT2.
PmNn, kT=0kT+NnG PoutNn, kdk=xT PoutNn, xdx,
PPMTk= kn-1=0pkn-1m, k k2=0pk2m, k3 ×k1=0p k1m, k2pm, k1 .
yk=0k PPMTkdk
PPMT,j+1mk= PPMT,jkmm>1, j,
PPMT,j+lmlk= PPMT,jkml,
P2, n=n1=0n pm, n1pm, n-n1=n1=0nmn1 exp-mn1!mn-n1 exp-mn-n1! =2nmn exp-2mn!n1=0nnCn1= 12n= 2mn exp-2mn! =p2m, n.
PP3, n =n1=0n pm, n1P2, n-n1=n1=0nmn1 exp-mn1!2mn-n1 exp-2mn-n1! =3nmn exp-3mn!n1=0nnCn113n123n-n1= 3mn exp-3mn! =p3m, n,
Ps, n =n1=0n pm, n1Ps-1, n-n1=n1=0nmn1 exp-mn1!s-1mn-n1 exp-s-1mn-n1!= snmn exp-smn!n1=0nnCn11sn1s-1sn-n1= smn exp-smn! =psm, n.
n1=0nnCn1an1bn-n1=1 a+b=1,
PoutN, k=kn=0pknmn, kk2=0pk2m2, kn×k1=0pk1m1, k2PinN, k1.
Qkt=expkt=k=0expktPoutN, k=expNexpm1expm2×expmn-1expmnexpt-1-1-1-1-1.
ki=iti Qktt=0,
k=t Qkt|t=0=N i=1n mi=NG,
k2=2t2 Qktt=0=N i=1n mi×N i=1n mi+i=1n mi+i=2n mi++i=nn mi.
Fm= k-k2NG2= k2-k2NG2=1+ 1i=11 mi+ 1i=12 mi++ 1i=1n mi.
Qkst= exptks= j=1iexptkj=j=1iexptkj=j=1i Qkit=expj=1i Niexpm1expm2× expmn-1expmnexpt-1-1-1 -1-1,
j=1iexptkj=j=1iexptkj,
k= t Qkstt=0=G j=1i Nj,
k2= 2t2 Qkstt=0=G j=1i NjN i=1n mi+i=1n mi+i=2n mi++i=nn mi.

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