Abstract

Experimental results relating to the gain-switched operation of a double-clad Yb3+,Er3+-doped silica fiber laser that is pulse pumped with the output from a flash-lamp-pumped Ti:sapphire laser are presented. For all the configurations of the fiber laser that we studied, the 2 F 5/22 F 7/2 laser transition of the Yb3+ ion lased prior to laser emission from the 4 I 13/24 I 15/2 transition of the Er3+ ion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported operation of sequence lasing in the Yb3+,Er3+-codoped system. This succession of laser pulses deduced from the measurements of this investigation is a consequence of both the short intense pump pulse and the short 900-nm wavelength of the pump that does not overlap with any important excited-state absorption transitions. We believe that the predominant interionic interaction during the course of the pump pulse is the double-energy transfer to the Er3+ ion acting twice from the 2 F 5/2 energy level of the Yb3+ donor ion. A maximum total output of 1.65 mJ is obtained (1.38 mJ from the 2 F 5/22 F 7/2 transition of Yb3+ and 0.27 mJ from the 4 I 13/24 I 15/2 transition of Er3+) from a nonoptimized configuration of the fiber laser. The wavelength of the output from the fiber laser was measured to vary approximately linearly with fiber length from 1040 to 1046 nm for the Yb3+-based laser and 1535 to 1541 nm for the Er3+-based laser.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 37–39 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 µm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388–390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. N. Filippov, A. N. Starodumov, A. N. Kir’yanov, “All-fiber passively Q-switched low-threshold erbium laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 343–345 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. See, for example, fiber-coupled quasi-cw diodes JOLD-35-QAXF-1L and JOLD-70-QAXF-2P from Jenoptik Laserdiode GmbH, Prüssingstrasse 41, D-07745 Jena, Germany; www.jold.de .
  20. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient high power operation of a Nd:YAG-pumped Yb:Er-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 172, 271–278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. S. Quimby, “Output saturation in a 980-nm pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2546–2552 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalo, B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet, E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1581, 72–79 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering effects on double energy transfer in heavily ytterbium-erbium-codoped silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 693–701 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Filippov, A. N. Starodumov, A. N. Kir’yanov, “All-fiber passively Q-switched low-threshold erbium laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 343–345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient high power operation of a Nd:YAG-pumped Yb:Er-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 172, 271–278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 µm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering effects on double energy transfer in heavily ytterbium-erbium-codoped silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 693–701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. S. Quimby, “Output saturation in a 980-nm pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2546–2552 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

Andrews, L. J.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, C.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bicknese, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, J.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Davies, R. W.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dhanjal, S.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, B. C.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dietlein, T. S.

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dohle, R.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dominic, V.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Filippov, V. N.

Frenz, M.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Girard, S.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P. S.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

Hill, R. A.

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, J.

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ith, M.

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient high power operation of a Nd:YAG-pumped Yb:Er-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 172, 271–278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobi, P. C.

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

King, T. A.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient high power operation of a Nd:YAG-pumped Yb:Er-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 172, 271–278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. N.

Konov, V. I.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konz, F.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krieglstein, G. K.

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, G.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Le Boulanger, P.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lesiecki, M. L.

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liem, A.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L. G.

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacCormack, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Margerie, J.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, E.

Melchior, H.

Miniscalco, W. J.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalo, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalo, B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet, E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Myslinski, P.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, D.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Paltauf, G.

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pederson, B.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pratisto, H.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, “Output saturation in a 980-nm pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2546–2552 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalo, B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet, E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 µm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

SchmidtKloiber, H.

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silenok, A. S.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

Stern, D.

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalo, B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet, E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J. E.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P. W.

Unger, S.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolak, E.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zemon, S.

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, E.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Liem, D. Nickel, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, U. Griebner, S. Unger, A. Tunnermann, G. Korn, “High average power ultra-fast fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 889–891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, S. Yeh, E. Zucker, “110W fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1158–1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fiber lasers in 1-µm region,” Electron. Lett. 30, 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. (1)

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Ab interno infrared laser trabecular ablation: preliminary short-term results in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 235, 349–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, M. Kavehrad, “Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817–1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Zemon, B. Pederson, G. Lambert, W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, R. W. Davies, T. Wei, “Excited-state absorption cross-sections in the 800-nm band for Er-doped, Al/P-silica fibers—measurements and amplifier modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 621–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Frenz, F. Konz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

T. S. Dietlein, P. C. Jacobi, G. K. Krieglstein, “Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation (LTA) in the surgical treatment of glaucoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 104–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, D. Stern, M. L. Lesiecki, J. Hsia, M. W. Berns, “Effects of pulse-width on erbium-YAG laser photothermal trabecular ablation (LTA),” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 440–446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulse-pumped 2.7-µm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Petropoulos, S. Dhanjal, D. J. Richardson, N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of an Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser with a fibrised liquefying gallium mirror,” Opt. Commun. 166, 239–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, “Efficient high power operation of a Nd:YAG-pumped Yb:Er-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 172, 271–278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. SchmidtKloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

See, for example, fiber-coupled quasi-cw diodes JOLD-35-QAXF-1L and JOLD-70-QAXF-2P from Jenoptik Laserdiode GmbH, Prüssingstrasse 41, D-07745 Jena, Germany; www.jold.de .

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalo, B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet, E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured output energy from the gain-switched fiber laser as a function of launched pump energy. The fiber laser consisted of an 8-m-long fiber, and the wavelength of the output was 1046 nm from the Yb3+-based laser and 1541 nm from the Er3+-based laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) slope efficiency and (b) launched pump energy at threshold as a function of the length of the fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured wavelength of the output from the fiber laser as a function of the length of Er3+,Yb3+-doped silica fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured temporal characteristic of the pump pulse, Yb3+-transition-based fiber laser pulse, and Er3+-transition-based fiber laser pulse for a launched pump energy of (a) 1.5 mJ, (b) 4.5 mJ, (c) 7.5 mJ. In all cases, the fiber length was 4.6 m, and and the wavelength of the output was 1042 nm from the Yb3+-based laser and 1538 nm from the Er3+-based laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simplified energy-level diagrams for the Yb3+ and Er3+ ions.

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