Abstract

A measurement campaign was organized in March 1999 in the Bavarian Alps as part of the European project, Characteristics of the UV Radiation Field in the Alps (CUVRA), to analyze the effect of altitude, aerosols, and snow cover on ground-level UV spectral irradiance. We present the results of simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) made at various sites on two cloudless days in March 1999. The two days exhibited different aerosol conditions. Results derived from spectral measurements of UV irradiance are compared with data from filter radiometer measurements made at discrete wavelengths extending from the UV to the near IR. The different methods generated values for the AOD that were in good agreement. This result confirms that one can use either method to retrieve the AOD with an uncertainty of approximately 0.03–0.05. On 18 March, high turbidity was observed at low altitude (400-nm AOD ∼0.5 at 700 m above sea level), and the AOD decreased regularly with altitude; on 24 March, the turbidity was much less (0.11 at 700 m above sea level). On both days very low AODs (0.05–0.09) were measured at 3000 m above sea level. The spectral dependence of the AOD is often parameterized by the angstrom relationship; the α parameter is generally difficult or impossible to retrieve from spectral measurements because of the relatively narrow wavelength range (320–400 nm), and only one of the spectroradiometers used during the campaign permits this retrieval. In most cases, during this field campaign, α was found by filter sunphotometers to be 1.1–1.5.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (2)

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7211–7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their roles in global climate change,” Nature 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. E. Shaw, A. Reagan, B. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Albold, A.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A. F.

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinctions,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 305–311.

Brueckner, G. E.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, T.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, R. P.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G.

G. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

de la Casinière, A.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erb, R.

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gröbner, J.

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7211–7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their roles in global climate change,” Nature 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B.

G. E. Shaw, A. Reagan, B. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7211–7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

G. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Kylling, A.

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their roles in global climate change,” Nature 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinctions,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 305–311.

Martin, T.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masserot, D.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, N. T.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, R.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, T.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pougatch, E.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pruvost, P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, A.

G. E. Shaw, A. Reagan, B. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rengarajan, G.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Royer, A.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmucki, D.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, C.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, A. Reagan, B. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Simon, P. C.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Staehelin, J.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P. M.

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thuilier, G. O.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Touré, M. L.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanhoosier, M. E.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, P.

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C. S.

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuilier, M. E. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200–350 nm interval during ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin. “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

G. E. Shaw, A. Reagan, B. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7211–7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, M. Herman, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Analysis of two balloon experiments in coincidence with SAGE II in case of large stratospheric aerosol amount: post-Pinatubo period,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1541–1552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,333–31,349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neil, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, A. Royer, “Bimodal size distribution influences on the variation of Angström derivatives in spectral and optical depth space,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9787–9806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, A. Albold, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, A. de la Casinière, J. Lenoble, T. Martin, D. Masserot, M. Müller, R. Philipona, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, G. Seckmeyer, C. Sergent, M. L. Touré, P. Weihs, “The variability of spectral ultraviolet irradiance in an Alpine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,991–27,003 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, “The effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the PAUR campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26,051–26,060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, B. Mayer, R. Erb, “High accuracy spectroradiometry of solar UV radiation,” Metrologia 32, 697–700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their roles in global climate change,” Nature 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET, a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Radiation Commission, International Association for Meterology and Atmospheric Physics, “A preliminary cloudless atmosphere for radiation computation,” WCP-112; WMO/TD-No.24 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1986).

G. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinctions,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormick, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 305–311.

M. Tevini, ed., UV-B Radiation and Ozone Depletion: Effects on Humans, Animals, Plants, Microorganisms and Materials (Lewis, New York, 1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time series of AOD measured during the CUVRA campaign by PFRs at four wavelengths at Garmisch and at Zugspitze. The gaps in the curves correspond to periods when the Sun was obscured by cloud.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AOD at four wavelengths, measured by PFRs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AOD versus station altitude as measured by various instruments in March 1999: M, for Murnau; G, Garmisch; S, Seefeld; W, Wank; Z, Zugspitze.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of ATI spectra with fit to angstrom law at Seefeld on 18 and 24 March 1999.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AOD for a clean continental aerosol model.13 Dotted curve, fit to angstrom law: α = 1.03.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral variations of (a) the AOD and (b) the extinction coefficient for a LND water-soluble aerosol model.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Organizations and Instruments Involved in AOD Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement Sites and Instruments

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average AODs and Standard Deviations for PFRsa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Summary of Cimel Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of AOD and α Obtained at Wank with ATLAS 3 and SOLSPEC Extraterrestrial Flux (ET) a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Aerosol LND Models

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τλ=βλ-α,
τλ=N r1r2 Qemr, mi, xπr2nrdr,
nr=2π-1/2r-1ln σ-1 exp[-ln2r/rm/2ln2 σ],
F=F0 exp-mτ,
τ=τMol+τAer+τGas.

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