Abstract

Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span more than two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) CZCS reanalysis (NCR) effort. NCR consisted of (1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved with modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms and (2) blending where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  29. Y. Dandonneau, “Surface chlorophyll concentration in the tropical Pacific Ocean: an analysis of data collected by merchant ships from 1978 to 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3581–3591 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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2001 (1)

W. W. Gregg, M. E. Conkright, “Global seasonal climatologies of ocean chlorophyll: blending in situ and satellite data for the CZCS era,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2499–2515 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “Automated navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. M. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Martin, M. J. Perry, “Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7309–7322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. R. Gordon, R. H. Evans, “Comment on ‘aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images’ by Eckstein and Simpson,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 537–540 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Dandonneau, “Surface chlorophyll concentration in the tropical Pacific Ocean: an analysis of data collected by merchant ships from 1978 to 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3581–3591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to coastal zone colour scanner images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 135–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Andre, A. Morel, “Simulated effects of barometric pressure and ozone content upon the estimate of marine phytoplankton from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1029–1037 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Y. Dandonneau, “A method for the rapid determination of chlorophyll plus phaeopigments in samples collected by merchant ships,” Deep-Sea Res. 29, 647–654 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Andre, J.-M.

J.-M. Andre, A. Morel, “Simulated effects of barometric pressure and ozone content upon the estimate of marine phytoplankton from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1029–1037 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, 06238 Villefranche sur Mer Cedex, France (personal communication, January2001).

Antonov, J.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Balch, W. M.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, O.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, T. P.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burney, J.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Carle, M.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Castano, D. J.

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Clark, D. K.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conkright, M. E.

W. W. Gregg, M. E. Conkright, “Global seasonal climatologies of ocean chlorophyll: blending in situ and satellite data for the CZCS era,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2499–2515 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Daley, R.

R. Daley, Atmospheric Data Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

Dandonneau, Y.

Y. Dandonneau, “Surface chlorophyll concentration in the tropical Pacific Ocean: an analysis of data collected by merchant ships from 1978 to 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3581–3591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, “A method for the rapid determination of chlorophyll plus phaeopigments in samples collected by merchant ships,” Deep-Sea Res. 29, 647–654 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. M. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckstein, B. A.

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to coastal zone colour scanner images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 135–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elrod, J.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Endres, D.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

W. W. Gregg, F. S. Patt, W. E. Esaias, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from OCTS. II. Geometric and radiometric analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5692–5702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. H. Evans, “Comment on ‘aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images’ by Eckstein and Simpson,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 537–540 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Fla. 33149 (personal communication, May1999).

Feldman, G. C.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Forgy, C.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Frouin, R. M.

R. M. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gelfeld, R.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Gordon, H. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. H. Evans, “Comment on ‘aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images’ by Eckstein and Simpson,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 537–540 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castano, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2111–2122 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, M. E. Conkright, “Global seasonal climatologies of ocean chlorophyll: blending in situ and satellite data for the CZCS era,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2499–2515 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, F. S. Patt, W. E. Esaias, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from OCTS. II. Geometric and radiometric analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5692–5702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “Automated navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Hoge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Johnson, D.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Kuring, N.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Levitus, S.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Martin, D. L.

D. L. Martin, M. J. Perry, “Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7309–7322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, N.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.

Minnett, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Moore, K. R.

K. R. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

J.-M. Andre, A. Morel, “Simulated effects of barometric pressure and ozone content upon the estimate of marine phytoplankton from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1029–1037 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morre, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Müller-Karger, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Ng, C.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, M. C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

O’Brien, T.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Patt, F. S.

W. W. Gregg, F. S. Patt, W. E. Esaias, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from OCTS. II. Geometric and radiometric analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5692–5702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “Automated navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

D. L. Martin, M. J. Perry, “Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7309–7322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phinney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Podesta, G.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. W.

R. W. Reynolds, “A real-time global sea surface temperature analysis,” J. Clim. 1, 75–86 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Robinson, W. D.

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.

Rochester, J.

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Schmidt, G. M.

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.

Schwindling, M.

R. M. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Simpson, J. J.

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to coastal zone colour scanner images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 135–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stathoplos, L.

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Stephens, C.

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Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

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M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 57–63.

Werdell, P. J.

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.

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G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

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Other (9)

M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.

International Ocean Color Coordinating Group, “Minimum requirements for an operational, ocean-color sensor for the open ocean,” IOCCG Report 1. (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1998).

M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 57–63.

R. H. Evans, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Fla. 33149 (personal communication, May1999).

D. Antoine, Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, 06238 Villefranche sur Mer Cedex, France (personal communication, January2001).

R. Daley, Atmospheric Data Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Top) Navigational offsets in latitude and longitude in the original DAAC CZCS archive. (Bottom) The effects of application of a bias adjustment used in the CZCS AI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the SeaWiFS OC4 MBR algorithm used in the Version 3 processing and its OC3C analog used in the CZCS AI. The major differences occur at high chlorophyll concentrations, but all values >25 mg m-3 were discarded in the AI, minimizing these differences.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geographic definition of the 12 major oceanographic basins of the global oceans.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Top left) Global seasonal climatologies of the DAAC CZCS, (top right) new reanalyzed CZCS without blending, (bottom left) the blended and reanalyzed CZCS NCR, (bottom right) SeaWiFS for spring defined for the Northern Hemisphere (April–June). Units are chlorophyll (mg m-3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As in Fig. 2, but for autumn (October–December).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference fields between the chlorophyll data sets for autumn. Units are chlorophyll (mg m-3). (Top left) NCR chlorophyll, (top right) difference between CZCS AI and DAAC CZCS, (bottom left) difference between NCR and CZCS AI, (bottom right) difference between SeaWiFS and NCR.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Global rms differences between the reanalyzed CZCS AI and the blended NCR, expressed as percent, compared with the DAAC CZCS blended analysis and the DAAC CZCS data set. Minima and maxima observed in any of the 12 major oceanographic basins (see Fig. 3) are indicated by the vertical lines. The basins corresponding to the minima and maxima are identified. Percent improvements for the NCR compared with the DAAC blend are 71.5%, 75.6%, 70.7%, and 71.7% for winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. The mean annual global improvement is 72.3%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Departure of global mean (expressed as percent) for the NCR from the CZCS AI and a comparison with the similar departure of the DAAC CZCS blended analysis from the DAAC CZCS data archive. The vertical lines indicate minimum and maximum departures observed in each of the 12 major oceanographic basins (Fig. 3). A negative (positive) value indicates that the blended analysis is lower (higher) than the CZCS data set. The global annual mean departure of the NCR is -9.7%, compared with the DAAC CZCS blend of 26.1%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Representative histograms of normalized water-leaving radiances at 520 and 550 nm, [L w ] N (520) and [L w ] N (550), derived from all observations for the seasons and years indicated. The mean mode was 0.498 and 0.294 mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1, respectively, for [L w ] N (520) and [L w ] N (550), which is close to the expected 0.498 and 0.30 mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1. The vertical line indicates the location of the expected mode.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Percentage of pixels where ε(550,670) values (representing aerosol type) were derived from clear-water observations as opposed to those obtained from extrapolation with the SCM. Observations were from the entire archive for spring and autumn.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Input Data Sets Required for Atmospheric Correction of CZCS Data for Compatibility with Modern Ocean Color Sensors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Methodologies used in the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis and the Methods used in the SeaWiFS Operational Processing, Version 3

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

La670=Lt670-Lr670-t670Lf670-t670Lw670,
ρa670=πLa670/cos θ0F0670,
Lw670=Lw670N cos θ0t0670,
log C=0.362-4.066R+5.125R2-2.645R3-0.597R4,
R1=LwN443/F0443LwN550/F0550,
R2=LwN520/F0520LwN550/F0550.
log C=0.366-3.067R+1.930R2+0.649R3-1.532R4,
F=6.497×10-7W3.52,
αλ=0.92+0.93λ-2.15λ2+0.78λ3,
Lfλ=0.4F αλt0λcos θ0F0λπ,

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