Abstract

Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 66 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 1993), pp. 252–262.
  2. J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 1. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Yu. A. Sazonov, P. I. Kumonko, “Holographic materials produced by the Micron plant at Slavich,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 31–40 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “HOEs recorded in silver halide sensitised gelatin emulsions,” in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE3956, 354–366 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “Principles of fabricating micropore silver-halide-gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 69, 112–114 (1990).
  7. Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).
  8. Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “The volume reflection SHG holograms: principles and mechanism of microcavity structure formation,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 52–56 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).
  10. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms from BB-640 plates,” in Holographic Materials VI, J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 106–111 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).
  15. C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, “Refractive index modulation mechanism in bleached silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 369–371 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Ferrante, “Silver halide gelatin spatial frequency response,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4180–4181 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Buschmann, Optical and Acoustical Holography, E. Camatini, ed., (Plenum, New York, 1972) pp. 151–172.
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. R. Graver, J. W. Gladden, J. W. Eastes, “Phase holograms formed by silver halide (sensitized) gelatin processing,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1529–1536 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimized spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4625–4627 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry—Developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).
  23. Y. Usanov, S. I. Vavilov, State Optical Institute, Birgevaya liniya 12, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia (personal communication, Oct.1999).
  24. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  25. PASCO-Industrial Adhesives, 150 W. Evergreen Ave., Philadelphia, Penna. 19118.
  26. A. Graube, “Infrared holograms recorded in high-resolution photographic plates with the Herschel reversal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 136–137 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic stars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6350–6353 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler fabricated in silver-halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic stars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6350–6353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler fabricated in silver-halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, “Refractive index modulation mechanism in bleached silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 369–371 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).

1990 (1)

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “Principles of fabricating micropore silver-halide-gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 69, 112–114 (1990).

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Graube, “Infrared holograms recorded in high-resolution photographic plates with the Herschel reversal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 136–137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Beléndez, A.

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimized spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4625–4627 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms from BB-640 plates,” in Holographic Materials VI, J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 106–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 1. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry—Developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 66 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 1993), pp. 252–262.

J. M. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “HOEs recorded in silver halide sensitised gelatin emulsions,” in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE3956, 354–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buschmann, H.

H. Buschmann, Optical and Acoustical Holography, E. Camatini, ed., (Plenum, New York, 1972) pp. 151–172.
[CrossRef]

Ce, W.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry—Developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

Choi, B. S.

Eastes, J. W.

Ferrante, R. A.

Fimia, A.

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimized spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4625–4627 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).

Flores, M.

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, J. W.

Goodman, J. W.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Infrared holograms recorded in high-resolution photographic plates with the Herschel reversal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 136–137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Graver, W. R.

Kavehrad, M.

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic stars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6350–6353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler fabricated in silver-halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 1. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “HOEs recorded in silver halide sensitised gelatin emulsions,” in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE3956, 354–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

Kirienko, E. A.

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kosobokova, N. L.

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

Kostuk, R. K.

Kumonko, P. I.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Sazonov, P. I. Kumonko, “Holographic materials produced by the Micron plant at Slavich,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 31–40 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neipp, C.

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms from BB-640 plates,” in Holographic Materials VI, J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 106–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pascual, I.

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimized spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4625–4627 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms from BB-640 plates,” in Holographic Materials VI, J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 106–111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. Phillips, W. Ce, “Chemical symmetry—Developers that look like bleach agents for holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 321–328 (1991).

Phillips, N. J.

J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 1. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “HOEs recorded in silver halide sensitised gelatin emulsions,” in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE3956, 354–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ratcliffe, D. B.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sazonov, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Sazonov, P. I. Kumonko, “Holographic materials produced by the Micron plant at Slavich,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 31–40 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shevtsov, M. K.

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “Principles of fabricating micropore silver-halide-gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 69, 112–114 (1990).

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “The volume reflection SHG holograms: principles and mechanism of microcavity structure formation,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 52–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E. S.

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic stars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6350–6353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler fabricated in silver-halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skokov, G. R.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Usanov, Y.

Y. Usanov, S. I. Vavilov, State Optical Institute, Birgevaya liniya 12, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia (personal communication, Oct.1999).

Usanov, Yu. E.

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “Principles of fabricating micropore silver-halide-gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 69, 112–114 (1990).

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “The volume reflection SHG holograms: principles and mechanism of microcavity structure formation,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 52–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vavilov, S. I.

Y. Usanov, S. I. Vavilov, State Optical Institute, Birgevaya liniya 12, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia (personal communication, Oct.1999).

Vorobiov, S. P.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zacharovas, S. J.

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Graube, “Infrared holograms recorded in high-resolution photographic plates with the Herschel reversal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 136–137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized holograms in Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1913–1925 (1999).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl. (1)

I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, A. Fimia, “Reflection holographic optical elements in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Appl. 21, 239–244 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Improved spatial frequency response in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from PFG-01 plates,” Opt. Commun. 173, 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler fabricated in silver-halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin as a holographic recording material,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 285–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (2)

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “Principles of fabricating micropore silver-halide-gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 69, 112–114 (1990).

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, N. L. Kosobokova, E. A. Kirienko, “Mechanism for forming a microvoid structure and methods for obtaining silver-halide gelatin holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 375–379 (1991).

Other (10)

Yu. E. Usanov, M. K. Shevtsov, “The volume reflection SHG holograms: principles and mechanism of microcavity structure formation,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 52–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Sazonov, P. I. Kumonko, “Holographic materials produced by the Micron plant at Slavich,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 31–40 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zacharovas, D. B. Ratcliffe, G. R. Skokov, S. P. Vorobiov, P. I. Kumonko, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holography 2000, T. H. Jeong, W. K. Sobotka, eds., Proc. SPIE4149, 73–80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kim, H. I. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “HOEs recorded in silver halide sensitised gelatin emulsions,” in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S. A. Benton, S. H. Stevenson, T. J. Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE3956, 354–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms from BB-640 plates,” in Holographic Materials VI, J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 106–111 (1999).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

D log E curve of Slavich PFG-03C emulsion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram that explains the SHSG process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of reflection HOEs recorded in PFG-03C emulsion at three wavelengths (λ = 647, 514, 458 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Air bubbles penetrating in the emulsion surface as a result of insufficient surface hardening (20,000×).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microvoids located along the interference fringes in the 7 µm emulsion cross section (6,000×); high-temperature processing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same emulsion as in Fig. 5 at high magnification (20,000×). Microvoids are visible.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same emulsion as in Fig. 5 at higher magnification (80,000×). Microvoids (100 nm) are now clearly visible; 1-µm emulsion cross section.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Emulsion processed at low temperature (20,000×). Smaller microvoids are visible.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same emulsion as in Fig. 8 at higher magnification (80,000×). Small microvoids (50 nm) are now clearly visible; 1-µm emulsion cross section.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Characteristics of the Slavich PFG-03C Emulsion

Tables Icon

Table 2 Main SHSG Processing Steps

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Table 3 Diffraction Efficiency and Transmittance of SHSG Reflection HOEsa

Equations (7)

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Λa=λ2 sinθ/2.
Λe=λ2n sinθ/2.
Q=2πλd/nΛ2,
n0=n+n1 cos2πx/Λ,
η=tanh2πn1d/λ cos ϕ0.
TT=NTP=Δn/n4nd/λ.
Δn/n=λ/4nd.

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